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Vobme  37,  Number  S    March,  1966 


Name  Change  Honors  Field  Family 

Museum  workmen  lower  bronze  nameplate from  main  entrance.  After 
recasting,  700  pound  plaque,  bearing  the  new  name,  will  be  remounted. 

by  E.  Leland  Webber,  Director 

A  significant  milestone  in  the  history  of  the  Museum  was 
marked  on  March  1  with  the  restoration  of  the  earlier,  and 
still  more  familiar  and  popular  name,  Field  Museum  of  Nat- 
ural History.  This  decision  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  was 
made  to  honor  the  several  members  of  the  Field  family  who 
contributed  for  more  than  seventy  years  toward  building  one 
of  the  world's  great  museums. 

The  Museum  was  made  possible  in  1893  by  a  gift  of 
$1,000,000  from  Marshall  Field,  the  founder  of  Marshall 
Field  and  Company.  Mr.  Field  died  in  1906  and  under  the 
terms  of  his  will  the  Museum  received  a  bequest  of  $8,000,000. 
This  major  gift,  one  of  the  largest  which  had  been  given  to 
any  American  museum  to  that  time,  provided  the  funds  to 
construct  the  present  building,  completed  in  1921,  as  well  as 
a  sizable  endowment. 

Mr.  Field's  grandson,  Marshall  Field  III,  made  contri- 
butions between  1925  and  1949  approximating  in  amount 
those  of  his  grandfather.  His  major  gift,  made  at  the  time 
of  the  Museum's  50th  Anniversary  in  1943,  was  the  stimulus 
for  the  institution  to  enter  the  greatest  period  of  growth  in  its 
history.  From  1943  to  1965  the  size  of  the  staff  doubled  and 
the  size  of  the  collections  more  than  tripled.  The  collections 
now  number  approximately  10,000,000  specimens  and  rank 
with  those  of  London,  Washington  and  New  York  as  world 
research  resources.  An  expanded  program  of  scientific  re- 
search resulted  in  the  publication  of  as  many  scientific  publi- 
cations in  the  ensuing  22  years,  as  had  appeared  in  the  first 
50  years.  The  Museum  library,  in  1943  a  small  library  con- 
taining much  miscellania,  has  more  than  doubled  in  size  to 
160,000  volumes.  Of  greater  significance  than  its  size,  is  the 
strength  and  balance  of  the  library's  holdings.  Since  1943 
many  of  the  exhibit  halls  have  been  modernized  or  completely 

Stanley  Field,  nephew  of  the  first  Marshall  Field,  served 
as  President  and  Chairman  of  the  Board  of  the  Museum  for 
more  than  50  years,  until  his  death  in  1964.  He  made  large 
financial  contributions  to  the  Museum,  but  even  more  im- 
portant, he,  more  than  any  other  individual,  built  the  dis- 
tinguished institution  that  exists  today.  The  word  "built"  is 
used  advisedly,  for  he  planned  and  oversaw  the  construction 
of  the  present  structure  and  developed  the  Museum  in  a  bal- 
anced fashion.  It  is  probable  that  no  comparable  record  of 
personal  dedication  of  time  and  gifts  exists  in  the  history  of 
American  museums. 

Other  members  of  the  family  have  also  served  the  Mu- 
seum.    Marshall  Field  II  and  Marshall  Field  IV  were 

Page  2    MARCH 

After  the  February  21  Board  Meeting  at  which  trustees  of  Chicago  Natural 
History  Museum  voted  unanimously  to  restore  the  former  name  of  the  Mus- 
eum, Mayor  Richard  J.  Daley  and  Director  E.  Leland  Webber  addressed 
staff  members,  visitors  and  representatives  of  the  press.  A  bronze  bust  of 
Stanley  Field,  sculpted  by  Mr.  Field's  close  friend  Malvina  Hoffman,  was 
unveiled  by  the  Mayor  and  Mr.  Webber.  Miss  Hoffman,  the  internation- 
ally known  sculptress,  created  the  "Races  of  Man"  exhibit  at  Field  Museum. 
The  bust  will  be  displayed  permanently  in  Stanley  Field  Hall,  the  great 
central  gallery  of  the  Museum. 

Trustees  during  their  lifetimes,  and  Joseph  N.  Field  has  been 
a  Trustee  for  more  than  30  years. 

With  the  Museum  firmly  established  from  its  early  years, 
thousands  of  individuals,  and  numerous  corporations  and 
foundations,  have  also  contributed  generously  to  its  progress. 
The  number  of  Members  passed  10,000  during  the  past  year, 
and  an  increasing  number  of  our  Members  are  giving  toward 
current  needs.  The  Chicago  Park  District  has  contributed 
tax  funds  to  the  Museum  in  partial  support  of  certain  basic 
operating  expense  since  1895.  During  the  last  15  years,  the 
federal  government,  principally  through  National  Science 
Foundation,  has  given  important  financial  assistance  to  cer- 
tain of  the  Museum's  research  activities. 

The  lives  of  institutions  often  fail  into  rather  clearly  de- 
fined patterns,  much  as  do  the  lives  of  people.  Field  Mu- 
seum's history  has  completed  two  distinct  periods.  The  first 
50  years,  ending  with  World  War  H,  was  the  period  of  found- 
ing, building  construction,  establishment  of  core  collections, 
and  mass  installation  of  exhibits.  During  the  second  period, 
following  the  war,  the  Museum  reached  maturity,  after  un- 
dergoing a  period  of  intense  growth. 

Now,  as  the  Museum  approaches  its  75th  Anniversary,  it 
is  entering  a  new  phase  of  its  life.  No  institution,  however 
great,  can  stand  still;  it  must  either  progress  or  retrogress. 
Therefore,  we  are  embarking  on  a  planned  program  of  insti- 
tutional development  to  bring  about  needed  building  im- 
provements and  strengthened  exhibition,  educational,  and 

research  activities.  The  newly  completed  Library  and  De- 
partment of  Geology  building  additions  and  the  Conservation 
Laboratory  in  the  Department  of  Anthropology  are  first  steps 
in  the  plan.  If  the  Museum  is  to  progress  toward  its  goals 
and  is  to  maintain  its  eminent  position  as  one  of  the  great 

Marshall  Field  I  Stanley  Field         Marshall  Field  III 

cultural  institutions  of  the  Chicago  area,  it  must  turn  toward 
its  Members  and  the  community  as  a  whole  for  financial 
support.  We  are  confident  that  this  support  will  be  forth- 
coming. It  is  altogether  fitting  that  as  Field  Museum  looks 
toward  the  future,  it  does  so  bearing  the  Field  name,  in  appre- 
ciation of  the  financial  aid  of  the  Field  family,  and  particu- 
larly in  recognition  of  the  lifetime  of  dedicated  and  sustained 
service  of  Stanley  Field,  both  of  which  created  the  greatness 
on  which  we  arc  privileged  to  build  today. 

MARCH    Page  3 


by  Phillip  Lewis,  Curator,  Primitive  Art 

An  exhibition  of  paintings  and  drawings  from  the  Terri- 
tory of  New  Guinea  opens  on  Friday,  March  4  in  the  Mu- 
seum's new  temporary  exhibition  hall.  The  art  comes  from 
two  different  peoples  of  the  Territory  of  New  Guinea,  the 
Abelam,  who  live  in  the  Maprik  district  of  the  Sepik  River 
region  of  New  Guinea,  and  the  Kilenge,  who  live  on  the  west- 
ern tip  of  the  large  island  of  New  Britain,  which  lies  just  east 
of  New  Guinea.  The  paintings  and  drawings  resulted  from 
the  efforts  of  Dr.  Robert  MacLennan  and  Dr.  Philip  J.  C. 
Dark,  who  separately  urged  the  two  tribes  to  produce,  with 
Western  implements  and  materials,  aspects  of  their  aboriginal 
art.  A  number  of  paintings  and  drawings  resulted,  with  some 
interest  for  the  study  and  appreciation  of  Melanesian  art. 

MacLennan  served  as  research  medical  officer  of  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  Territory  of  New  Guinea  in  1963  and  was 
stationed  at  Pukago  village  of  the  Maprik  district.  He  per- 
suaded the  people  living  there  to  make  a  series  of  paintings 
for  him,  on  paper,  using  powdered  tempera  paints.  Abelam 
paintings  are  usually  done  with  native  colors,  on  large  rec- 
tangular sheets  of  sago  spathe,  the  fibrous  sheath  which  en- 
velops the  flower  cluster  of  the  sago  palm  tree.  The  paintings 
were  made  to  be  displayed  on  the  facades  and  in  the  interiors 
of  the  giant,  60  feet  high,  men's  houses.  Painting  on  paper 
resulted  in  a  kind  of  gouache  painting  rather  like  the  aborig- 
inal paintings.  The  fact  that  they  were  done  on  paper  for 
MacLennan  made  it  possible  for  him  to  collect  them  without 
defacing  the  men's  houses.  However,  in  spite  of  the  use  of 
foreign  materials  and  the  artificial  stimulation  by  an  out- 
sider, the  Abelam  apparently  valued  the  new  paintings  some- 
what like  their  traditional  ones,  for  women  were  barred  from 
watching  the  painters  as  they  worked  with  temperas  and 
paper.  {Continued  on  page  6) 

Page  4    MARCH 

Cover:  Kilenge  artist,  working  with  marking  pen,  island  of  New  Britain.  Opposite:  60-foot  Abelam  house  front,  decorated  with 
paintings  on  sheets  of  palm  fiber.  This  page,  bottom,  enlargement  of  house  panel  from  page  4;  top,  three  Abelam  paintings  in 
tempera  on  paper,  showing  a  relationship  with  house  decorations.     The  Abelam  live  in  New  Guinea. 

The  show  is  a  joint  undertaking  of  the  Art  Department  and  the  Department  of  Anthropology  of  Southern  Illinois  University  at  Carbondale.  Dr. 
Philip  J.  C.  Dark,  Research  Associate  of  this  Museum  and  Chairman  of  the  Department  of  Anthropology  at  Southern  Illinois  University,  was  assisted 
in  compiling  the  catalogue  and  in  staging  the  exhibition  by  Dr.  Robert  MacLennan,  of  the  Division  of  Epidemiology  of  Tulane  University,  and  by 
Mrs.  Loretta  Hill  of  the  Department  of  Anthropology,  Southern  Illinois  University.  Dr.  Adrian  A.  Gerbrands,  Associate  Director  of  the  National 
Museum  of  Ethnology,  Leiden,  The  Netherlands,  and  visiting  Professor  of  Anthropology  at  Southern  Illinois  University,  acted  as  consultant  for  the 
exhibition.     The  Office  of  Research  and  Projects  of  Southern  Illinois  University  has  kindly  allowed  Field  Museum  to  present  the  exhibition  here. 

MARCH    Paged 

In  1960,  the  Museum  of  Primitive  Art  exhibited  some 
Abelam  paintings,  also  made  on  paper.    Those  paintings  were 
collected  by  Anthony  Forge,  who  spent  1958-59  studying  the 
art  of  the  Abelam  people.    The  results  of  his  field  work  are 
not  yet  published,  but  in  his  Notes  on  Eastern  Abelam  De- 
signs on  Paper,  in  Three  Regions  of  Melanesian  Art,  the  Mu- 
seum of  Primitive  Art,  New  York,  1 960,  he  says, 
"All  .Abelam  painting  is  executed  by  groups  of  men  under 
the  direction  of  a  master  artist  who  paints  the  white  and 
supervises  the  painting  of  the  other  colors.     Apart  from 
Tsigula,  [the  most  knowledgeable  painter  of  the  village  in 
which  Forge  worked]  few  of  the  [villagers]  .  .  .  were  .  .  . 
believed  by  their  fellows  to  be  sufficiently  expert  ...  to 
undertake  the  direction  of  a  complete  design,  so  that  in 
some  of  [Forge's]  examples  even  the  painting  of  the  white 
lines  is  the  work  of  a  group." 
Dr.  MacLennan  met  Anthony  Forge  and  became  inter- 
ested in  Abelam  painting.    We  do  not  know  if  MacLennan's 
paintings  were  done  collectively  as  described  by  Forge. 

The  Kilenge  drawings  were  collected  in  1964  by  Dark 
and  Joel  Maring,  a  linguist,  on  a  field  trip  to  New  Guinea  and 

The  photographs  on  this  page  show  two 
masked  Kilenge  figures,  and  Kilenge 
renderings  of  these  masks  in  marking 
pens  on  paper. 

The  exhibit  on  the  art  oj  Melanesia 
will  be  shown  in  the  Museum's  new 
exhibition  lounge  in  Hall  9W,  recently 
remodeled  as  the  first  in  a  series  of 
lounge-exhibition  areas  located  in  vari- 
ous halls. 

New  Britain.  Dark  was  looking  for  a  place  where  he  could 
later  pursue  a  research  project  to  study  the  art  and  language 
of  a  Melanesian  people  who  had  still  kept  much  of  their  tra- 
ditional culture.  He  chose  the  Kilenge  speaking  people  of 
the  western  tip  of  New  Britain,  where  a  number  of  Kilenge 
villages  will  be  studied  by  Dark  and  Dr.  Adrian  A.  Gerbrands 
later  this  year.  In  1964,  Dark  stayed  with  the  Kilenge  and 
inspired  the  drawings  shown  in  the  exhibition. 

Unlike  the  Abelam,  the  Kilenge  did  not  make  paintings  for 
display  as  house  facades,  but  did  paint  designs  on  canoes,  and 
on  other  objects,  especially  several  kinds  of  masks.  The  Ki- 
lenge made  drawings  on  paper  with  marking  inks,  not  only  of 
designs  used  on  canoes,  but  also  representations  of  the  three 
dimensional  masks.    Thus  the  Kilenge  were  not  only  enticed 

into  using  unfamiliar  materials  and  making  traditional  de- 
signs with  them,  but  also  made  an  excursion  into  represent- 
ing, by  means  of  two  dimensional  drawings,  the  three  dimen- 
sional masks  they  know. 

The  exhibition  thus  presents  two  exercises  in  transforma- 
tion of  art  by  new  media,  and  in  so  doing,  allows  us  a  glimpse 
of  traditional  art  forms  as  seen  from  "inside"  the  cultures. 
The  idea  of  people  making  paintings  and  drawings  of  their 
traditional  art  is  not  new  but  it  does  raise  new  possibilities  for 
studying  fast-dying  primitive  art  in  the  field  by  making  avail- 
able an  insider's  view  of  the  art. 

In  these  days  of  rapid  and  irreversible  change,  experi- 
ments which  deepen  our  insight  into  traditional  art  and  cul- 
ture are  valuable. 

Page  6     MARCH 






by  Edward  J.  Olsen,  Curator,  Mineralogy 


Three  new  and  exotic  specimens  of 
gems  and  minerals  are  now  on  exhibit  in 
the  Museum.  Two  are  extremely  un- 
usual in  size  and  perfection,  the  third  is 
rare  because  of  its  exquisite  workmanship. 
■l^g^^^HH  The  first,  a  flawless, 
^^^^^H  faceted,  blue  topaz, 
JBB^^j^l  weighs  5,890  carats,  or 
/■■Ij^kB  translated  into  English, 
^^^^^^^  two  pounds  and  nine 
ounces!  The  stone,  which  was  found  in 
a  creek  bottom  in  Brazil,  has  been  faceted 
into  a  beautiful  teardrop-shaped  gem 
measuring  five  inches  long  by  three-and- 
one-half  inches  wide  by  two-and-three- 
quarters  inches  deep.  It  is  the  largest 
faceted  blue  topaz  in  the  world. 

Topaz  is  occasionally  found  as  rough 
stones  of  remarkable  size.  For  example, 
in  H.  N.  Higinbotham  Hall  here  at 
the  Museum  we  have  had  on  exhibit  for 
many  years  a  rough  (unfaceted)  topaz 
that  weighs  over  205,000  carats,  or  over 
87  pounds!  It  is  a  fairly  flawless  piece, 
too,  but  it  is  colorless.  Large  blue  stones 
are  much  more  rare.  Another  control- 
ling factor  in  the  size  of  a  faceted  stone  is 
the  size  of  the  equipment  used.    Except 

with  special  equipment,  most  gem  cut- 
ters cannot  handle  such  large  stones  at  all. 

In  terms  of  size  also,  a  recently  ac- 
quired specimen  of  the  common  mineral, 
quartz,  is  outstanding.  Quartz  is  one  of 
the  three  most  common  minerals  on  the 
surface  of  the  earth.  Ninety-eight  per- 
cent of  the  time  it  occurs  as  featureless 
white  or  glassy  grains  in  sandstones, 
granites,  and  similar  rocks,  or  as  grains 
making  up  the  sand  of  most  of  the 
beaches  of  the  world.  In  a  number  of 
cases  quartz  occurs  as  crystals,  with  nat- 
ural crystal  faces,  ranging  from  the  size 
of  pin  heads  to  slender  prisms  about  a 
foot  long.  In  rare  cases,  quartz  crystals 
occur  in  monster  sizes;  however,  the  big- 
ger they  come,  the  less  chance  they  will 
have  smooth,  well-formed  crystal  faces. 

The  Museum  was  fortunate  enough  to 
acquire  a  single,  well-formed  quartz 
crystal  weighing  350  pounds.  The  crys- 
tal, a  huge  terminated  prism  bounded 
by  its  own  crystal  faces,  stands  two  feet 
five  inches  high,  is  fifteen  inches  wide, 
eleven  inches  deep,  and  measures  just 
under  four  feet  "around  the  waist."  It 
was  found  near  Hot  Springs,  Arkansas. 

Both  the  quartz  and  the  topaz  were  pur- 
chased by  the  John  A.  Chalmers  Fund 
for  the  Chalmers  Crystal  Collection. 

Finally,  a  piece  which  shows  remark- 
able and  exquisite  workmanship  is  a 
large  blue  sapphire  that  measures  .82 
inches  across  and  has  been  carved  into 
the  face  of  a  woman.  The  face  has  been 
mounted  in  a  diamond-studded  platinum 
setting  which  forms  an  intricate,  glitter- 
ing headdress.  The  stone  is  deep  blue 
in  color  and  the  carving  was  done  with 
great  skill  to  yield  a  satin-smooth  finish. 
Sapphire  is  a  name  given  to  deep  blue 
varieties  of  the  mineral  corundum,  which 
is  most  commonly  brown  in  color.  Carv- 
ing sapphire  is  no  easy  task  because  co- 
rundum is  one  of  the  hardest  minerals 
known  (softer  than  diamond,  but  harder 
than  topaz  or  quartz).  This  stone  was 
donated  to  the  Museum  in  the  memory 
of  Mrs.  Chauncey  B.  Blair  through  the 
great  generosity  of  Mrs.  Italia  B.  de  Sori- 
ano of  Chicago. 

The  topaz 's  on  special  exhibit  adjacent  to  The  Hall 

of  Jades. 
The  quartz  "lay  be  seen  in  Stanley  Field  Hall. 
The  sapphire  is  on  display  in   The  Hall  oj  Gems, 

(H.  M.  Higinbotham  Hall). 

MARCH    Page? 

NSF  Grant  to  E.  R.  Blake,  Curator  of  Birds 

National  Science  Foundation  has  awarded  a  $33,000  grant  to  Field  Museum 
in  support  of  the  initial  two  years  of  work  on  the  preparation  by  Emmet  R.  Blake, 
Curator  of  Birds,  of  the  first  comprehensive  synopsis  of  tropical  American  birds. 
As  this  fauna  accounts  for  more  than  one-third  of  the  world's  species  and  far  ex- 
ceeds that  of  any  other  zoogeographical  region,  there  is  increasing  need  for  a  syn- 
thesis that  will  satisfy  the  requirements  of  investigators  in  several  fields. 

The  proposed  "Manual  of  Neotropical  Birds,"  in  several  volumes,  will  treat  all 
of  the  species  and  subspecies — totalling  more  than  8,000  named  forms — accredited 
to  the  area  from  Guatemala  to  the  southern  tip  of  South  America.  It  will  include 
pertinent  descriptive  information  and  data  that  is  either  largely  new  or  not  readily 
available,  and  will  therefore  be  an  invaluable  research  tool  for  ornithologists,  para- 
sitologists, ecologists  and  zoogeographers,  whether  working  in  the  laboratory  or  at  a 
tropical  field  station.  The  manual  is  scheduled  for  completion  in  about  eight  years. 

Mr.  Blake,  a  specialist  in  Neotropical  birds,  has  been  with  the  Museum  since 
1935.  He  has  made  numerous  field  trips  to  Central  and  South  America,  and  has 
published  the  results  of  his  investigations  both  in  this  country  and  abroad.  In  1 964, 
he  was  elected  an  Honorary  Member  of  the  Asociacidn  Ornitologico  del  Plata 
(Buenos  Aires)  in  recognition  of  his  "valuable  contributions  to  the  knowledge  of 
neotropical  birds."  This  new  project  continues  the  long  history  of  interest  by  staff 
members  in  the  natural  history  of  Latin  America,  interest  which  has  produced  a 
number  of  definitive  studies  of  the  area. 

Spring  Journey,  'From  Expedition  to  Exhibition' 

The  Spring  Journey  for  children,  titled  From  Expedition  to  Exhibition,  is  cen- 
tered around  the  new  Zoology  exhibit.  The  Flow  of  Information.  Available  during 
the  months  of  March,  April  and  May,  this  Journey  through  the  Zoology  exhibition 
halls  is  designed  to  teach  something  about  the  work  of  museum  scientists,  explain- 
ing the  significance  and  methodology  of  specimen-collecting,  and  giving  an  idea 
of  how  exhibits  are  prepared. 

Children  often  ask  how  the  museum  gets  its  specimens.  Part  of  this  question 
will  be  answered  at  the  Expedition  case,  which  deals  with  the  work  of  the  curator 
in  the  field.  At  the  Research  case,  young  students  will  discover  that  much  of  the 
scientists'  time  is  spent  in  study.  The  importance  of  publishing  findings  to  inform 
others  of  their  discoveries  and  conclusions  is  also  stressed.  The  use  of  this  published 
material,  intended  primarily  for  other  scientists,  as  source  material  for  popular 
works  on  scientific  subjects  is  brought  out  in  the  case  called  Communications. 
Books  on  bird  identification  are  used  as  an  example  of  this  type  of  information  flow. 

Finally,  the  Exhibition  case,  which  is  frequently  used  to  show  children  that 
the  animals  displayed  are  not  "stuffed,"  gives  them  some  idea  about  the  work  in- 
volved in  preparing  the  exhibits,  and  brings  the  Journey  full  circle,  back  to  the 
children's  point  of  departure. 

Additional  sources  of  specimens,  other  exhibition  techniques,  and  other  uses  of 
the  research  collections  are  covered  in  the  remainder  of  the  Journey,  which  is  the 
45th  in  the  quarterly  series  sponsored  by  the  Raymond  Foundation. 

Shell  Club  'Fair'  Opens  March  1st 

The  Second  Annual  Chicago  Shell  Fair  is  being  presented  in  the  Museum  dur- 
ing the  month  of  March.  Colorful,  rare,  and  famous  shells  are  displayed  in  Stanley 
Field  Hall  in  a  series  of  eight  cases  designed  by  members  of  the  Chicago  Shell  Club. 
Response  to  the  first  show,  held  here  for  two  days  last  year,  was  so  great  that  the 
present  exhibit  has  been  extended  to  a  full  month. 

The  Chicago  Shell  Club,  which  was  started  in  the  fall  of  1964,  meets  at  2  p.m. 
the  second  Sunday  of  each  month  at  Field  Museum.  Those  interested  in  shells  and 
shell  collecting  are  invited  to  attend. 

Page  8    MARCH 



Roosevelt  Rd.  &  Lake  Shore  Drive 
Chicago,  Illinois  60605 

Founded  by  Marshall  Field,  1893 


Lester  Armour 
Harry  0.  B ere  her 
William  McCormick  Blair 
Bowen  Blair 
Walter  J.  Cummings 
Joseph  N.  Field 
Paul  W.  Goodrich 
Clifford  C.  Gregg 
Samuel  Insull,  Jr. 
Henry  P.  Isham 
Hughston  M.  McBain 
Remick  McDowell 
J.  Roscoe  Miller 
William  H.  Mitchell 
James  L.  Palmer 
John  T.  Pirie,  Jr. 
John  Shedd  Reed 
John  G.  Searle 
John  M.  Simpson 
Edward  Byron  Smith 
Louis  Ware 
E.  Leland  Webber 
J.  Howard  Wood 


William  V.  Kahler 


James  L.  Palmer,  President 

Clifford  C.  Gregg,  First  Vice-President 

Joseph  N.  Field,  Second  Vice-President 

Bowen  Blair,  Third  Vice-President 

Edward  Byron  Smith, 

Treasurer  and  Assistant  Secretary 

E.  Leland  Webber,  Secretary 


E.  Leland  Webber 


Donald  Collier, 

Department  of  Anthropology 

Louis  0.  Williams, 

Department  of  Botany 

Rainer  ^angerl, 

Department  oj  Geology 

Austin  L.  Rand, 

Department  oj  ^oology 


Edward  G.  Nash,  Managing  Editor 
Beatrice  Paul, 

Kathleen  Wolff, 

Associate  Editors 

Volume  37,  Number  |    April,   1966 


May  6 


The  Fifteenth  Annual  Member's  Nif.!;ht  will  be  held  here 
on  the  evening  of  May  6.  As  in  years  past,  offices  and  labor- 
atories will  be  open  to  members,  and  curators  and  staff  mem- 
bers will  be  on  hand  to  talk  about  the  most  recent  develop- 
ments in  the  Museum's  research  and  exhibition  programs. 

The  highlight  of  the  evening  will  be  the  opening  of  a 
special  exhibit  in  Hall  9  Gallery,  the  Museum's  new  lounge- 
exhibition  area.  The  exhibit,  entitled  "Maya  Art,  Rubbings 
from  Stone  Carvings",  will  show  forty-three  ink  rubbings  on 
rice  paper,  made  by  Mrs.  Merle  Greene.  The  rubbings 
were  taken  from  stone  bas-reliefs  found  in  Mayan  temples, 
and  from  stelae  in  the  ceremonial  plazas  of  Mayan  cities 
of  Guatemala  and  Mexico.  The  rubbings  will  be  supple- 
mented by  Maya  sculpture  lent  by  the  Museum  of  Primitive 
Art  in  New  York,  the  Art  Institute  of  Chicago,  and  leading 
Chicago  collectors. 

Nearby,  Dr.  Kenneth  Starr,  Curator,  Asian  Archaeology 
and  Ethnology,  will  demonstrate  the  techniques  involved  in 
making  rubbings  of  stone  reliefs.  This  demonstration  will 
give  members  an  appreciation  of  the  similarities  and  differ- 
ences to  be  expected  between  an  actual  stone  bas-relief  and 
the  rubbing  made  from  it. 
Other  events  scheduled  for  Member's  Night  include : 

A  color  slide  show  on  "The  Natural  History  of  the  Harar 
Highlands,  Ethiopia",  given  by  Dr.  William  C.  Burger, 
Assistant  Curator  of  Vascular  Plants. 

Display  of  the  terrestrial  and  flying  mammals  taken  in 




the  recent  Street  Expedition  to  Afghanistan. 

Demonstration  of  the  use  of  stereo  photographs  in  the 
study  of  fossil  Australian  mammals,  by  Mr.  William  Turn- 
bull,  Associate  Curator,  Fossil  Mammals. 

A  graphic  presentation  of  the  functions  and  operations 
of  a  large  herbarium,  entitled  "It's  Cut  and  Dried." 

"Chromosomes  and  serum  proteins  in  taxonomy," 
exhibited  by  Dr.  Charles  F.  Nadler,  Associate  in  Mammals, 
illustrating  new  techniques  in  animal  classification. 

Dr.  Glen  Cole.  Assistant  Curator  of  Prehistory,  will  dis- 
cuss the  functions  and  classification  of  paleolithic  stone  tools. 

The  Division  of  Insects  will  display  trays  of  unusual  and 
colorful  insects.  A  demonstration  of  methods  of  preparing 
insect  specimens  will  also  be  offered. 

Among  the  newest  additions  to  the  Museum,  the  Robert 
R.  McCormick  Conservation  Laboratory  will  demonstrate 
methods  of  cleaning  metal  artifacts. 

The  Taxidermy  Division,  always  one  of  the  most  popular 
stops  on  Member's  Night,  will  be  open  as  usual,  showing 
work  in  progress,  and  its  vast  collection  of  animal  skins. 

The  Museum  will  be  open  to  Members  and  their  guests  at 
6 :  00  P.M.  The  oliices  and  laboratories  will  open  at  7 :00  P.M. 
Dinner  will  be  available  in  the  Museum  cafeteria  from  6  to  8. 
Free  shuttle  bus  service  will  operate  from  Jackson  and  State 
to  and  from  Field  Museum  at  frequent  intervals  starting  at 
6 :00  P.M.,  the  last  bus  leaving  the  Museum  shortly  after  the 
close  of  Member's  Night  at  10:00  P.M. 

Members  meet  Staff  in 
Stanley  Field  Hall 

ONE  of  my  special  research  interests 
is  in  the  smallest  known  beetles,  the 
featherwing  beetles  (scientific  name: 
Ptiliidae).  The  common  name  derives 
from  the  curious  structure  of  the  wings, 
one  of  which  is  shown  on  the  cover. 
These  beetles  are  minute;  the  smallest 
are  only  one  seventy-fifth  of  an  inch 
long.  This  is  less  than  the  size  of  some 
single-celled  Protozoa,  yet  they  have 
compound  eyes,  antennae  of  many  seg- 
ments, complex  mouthparts,  wings,  and 
all  the  other  essential  parts  of  their 
larger  relatives.  Almost  none  are  long- 
er than  one  twenty-fifth  of  an  inch. 
They  are  truly  reinarkable  examples  of 
biological  miniaturization. 

Because  featherwing  beetles  are  so 
small,  most  biologists  never  see  them  in 
the  field,  even  though  they  may  be  very 
abundant.  The  family  is  world-wide  in 
distribution  and  occurs  in  moist  places 
like  the  leaf  litter  of  the  forest  floor,  tree- 
holes,  under  bark,  logs,  or  decaying  sea- 
weed on  beaches.  Each  situation  will 
have  its  own  particular  kinds  of  feather- 
w-ing  beetles.  Sometimes  several  hun- 
dred can  be  found  in  a  square  foot  of 
forest  floor.  It  seems  that  they  feed 
chiefly  on  spores  and  hyphal  threads  of 
molds  and  other  fungi  in  decaying  or- 
ganic materials.  They  form  a  compon- 
ent of  a  complex,  but  little  understood, 
web  of  life  that  is  the  biology  of  our  soils. 
One  of  the  attractions  of  investigating 
such  little-known  creatures  is  that  so 
much  remains  to  be  discovered  about 
them.  Some  of  our  commonest  species 
have  not  been  described  or  named  yet, 
and  almost  nothing  is  known  of  their 
life-cycles,  behaviour,  or  modes  of  life. 
Nearly  everything  one  learns  about 
them  is  completely  new. 

Recently,  I  have  been  reviewing  a 
genus  of  featherwing  beetles  that  is  very 
abundant  in  Florida  and  the  adjacent 
Gulf  States,  in  decaying  leaves  and  other 
materials  on  the  ground,  but  that  has 

Biological  miniaturization 


By  Henry  S.  Dybas,  Associate  Curator,  Insects 

completely  escaped  record  in  the  United 
States.  I  now  know  of  seven  species  in 
Florida,  and  another  from  the  nearby 
Bahama  Islands,  which  need  to  be  des- 
cribed and  named  for  the  first  time. 
In  large  part,  these  new  species  are  the 
result  of  intensive  and  specialized  col- 
lecting by  Dr.  Walter  Suter,  a  yoiuig 
biology  professor  at  Carthage  College 

in  Kenosha,  Wisconsin,  and  by  Mr.  J. 
Harrison  Sleeves,  Jr.,  a  prominent  ar- 
chitect in  Birmingham,  Alabama.  Mr. 
Stecves'  hobb^y  of  collecting  and  study- 
ing tiny  beetles  must  appear  remarkably 
esoteric  to  his  business  associates. 

The  main  collecting  technique  in- 
volves the  use  of  the  insect  fumiel.  The 
principle  of  the  funnel  is  very  simple. 
Moist  forest  floor  or  other  debris  likely 
to  contain  insects  is  placed  in  a  shallow 

layer  on  a  screen  in  a  large  funnel.  Heat, 
usually  from  an  electric  light  bulb,  is  ap- 
plied from  above.  As  the  debris  grad- 
ually dries  or  heats  up,  the  tiny  insects 
move  down  deeper  through  the  debris 
where,  in  nature,  it  would  ordinarily  be 
more  moist  and  cool.  In  the  funnel, 
though,  they  pass  through  the  screen 
and  fall  down  the  steep  slopes  and  col- 
lect in  a  vial  attached  to  the  spout,  .'^n 
astonishing  number  and  variety  of  tiny 
insects  and  mites  can  be  extracted  in 
this  way  from  small  amounts  of  debris. 
There  may  be  several  thousand  in  a 
square  foot  of  forest  floor  a  few  inches 
thick.  This  simple  technique,  origin- 
ally devised  by  an  Italian  entomologist 
named  Berlese,  made  it  possible  for  the 
first  time  to  sample  systematically  the 
microhabitats  of  an  area  for  tiny  insects 
and  related  arthropods  and  to  obtain 
adequate  series  for  study. 

Tiny  beetles  like  the  featherwings 
inust  be  prepared  as  microscope  slide 
mounts  for  study.  This  is  somewhat 
more  delicate  and  tedious  than  mount- 
ing insects  of  ordinary  size.  But  it  pro- 
vides a  wealth  of  information,  not  only 
about  the  structure  and  relationships 
of  these  little  animals,  but  indirectly 
about  their  biology.  For  instance,  it 
soon  became  evident,  in  my  examin- 
ation of  this  genus,  that  there  was  never 
more  than  one  egg  in  the  abdomen  of 
the  female,  for  the  simple  reason  that 
the  egg  was  relatively  huge — fully  half 
the  length  of  the  beetle !  The  explana- 
tion for  this  phenomenon  was  pointed 
out  for  some  other  kinds  of  arthropods 
not  too  many  years  ago  by  the  noted 
biologist  Bernard  Rensch,  who  stated 
that  each  egg  needs  to  be  provided 
with  enough  yolk  for  the  embryo  to  de- 
velop and  hatch  into  a  self-sufficient 
larva.  Hence  there  is  a  size-limit  be- 
yond which  the  egg  cannot  be  reduced 

COVER:     Photomicrograph  of  the  wing  of  a  featherwing  beetle,  magnified  200  times. 

APRIL    Page  3 

in  most  insects  and  related  forms. 
Evolution  of  small  size  opens  up  many 
new  food  sources  and  living  spaces.  In 
the  process,  however,  the  number  of 
cE;gs  that  can  be  accomodated  and  ma- 
tured in  the  abdomen  must  become  few- 
er and  fewer  until,  finally,  the  irreduc- 
ible minimum  of  one  egg  is  reached  and 
a  limit  to  further  reduction  in  size  is  im- 
posed. Presumably,  featherwing  beetles 
are  now  at  the  size  limits  dictated  by 
their  mode  of  development  and  way  of 
life.  No  one  knows  how  long  a  female 
featherwing  beetle  can  live  and  repro- 
duce, nor  how  long  it  takes  a  single  egg 
to  mature  or  a  larva  to  develop.  Yet  it 
would  seem  that  the  total  egg  output  per 
female  must  be  very  low  in  comparison 
with  that  of  many  other  insects.  So  the 
abundance  of  featherwing  beetles  in 
some  situations  becomes  something  of  a 
problem  to  explain.  There  must  be 
some  compensatory  mechanisms  such  as 
increased  speed  of  development,  con- 


The  temperate  forest  Jloor  is  a  typical  habi- 
tat for  many  kinds  oj  featherwing  beetles. 

A  comparison  in  size, from 
a  Museum  exhibit.  The 
featherwing  beetle  is  in- 
side the  circle  but  canU  be 
seen  in  the  photograph.  It 
can  barely  be  seen  in  the 
actual  exhibit.  A  dozen 
or  so  small  featherwing 
beetles  could  he  placed  on 
the  head  of  a  pin. 

<IT  WOULD  TAKE  23,000.000 



tinuous  (rather  than  seasonal)  repro- 
duction, and  other  factors,  but  at  pre- 
sent we  know  too  little  about  their  bio- 
ology  to  know  what  these  compensatory 
mechanisms  might  be. 

Another  consequence  of  small  size  is 
its  effect  on  wings  and  flight.  The  nor- 
mal insect  wing  acts  aerodynamically 
like  that  of  a  bird  or  airplane  wing — a 
flow  of  air  over  the  surfaces  provides 
lift.  In  the  size  range  of  the  feather- 
wing beetles,  though,  the  viscous  drag 
forces  of  the  air  are  evidently  much 
greater  than  any  possible  lift  forces,  and 
the  wings  can  no  longer  function  in  the 
same  way. 

Flight  in  such  microscopic  forms  has 
never  been  directly  observed;  it  would 
be  technically  difficult.  The  long  mar- 
ginal hairs  of  the  featherwing  account 
for  most  of  its  expanse  (see  this  month's 
Bulletin  cover  illustration.)  If,  as  has 
been  suggested,  these  hairs  bend  more 
easily  on  the  upstroke  than  on  the  down, 
the  lift  forces  may  exceed  the  dragforces 
and  the  insect  may  be  able  to  "row" 
its  way  through  the  air.  Other  very 
small  insects  evidently  have  encountered 
the  same  problems,  because  a  similar 
"featherwing"  has  been  evolved  inde- 
pendently in  several  unrelated  groups 
of  insects,  most  notably  in  tiny  wasps 

that  are  parasitic  in  the  eggs  of  other  in- 
sects. Flight  of  featherwinged  insects 
would  seem  possible  only  in  still  air 
over  short  distances.  The  featherwing 
is  probably  an  adaptation  for  floating 
in  the  air  like  a  dandelion  seed  and  for 
dispersing  over  distances  by  means  of 
air  currents.  Such  passive  dispersal  im- 
plies wastage,  because  many  feather- 
wing beetles  must  be  wafted  to  unfavor- 
able places  and  lost.  This  adds  to  the 
problem  of  how  featherwing  beetles  man- 
age to  get  along  with  such  an  apparently 
low  egg  production. 

Another  curious  feature  that  emerg- 
ed in  the  course  of  studying  these  tiny 
Florida  featherwings  was  the  complete 
absence  of  males  in  at  least  five  of  the 
new  species.  This  can  not  be  attributed 
to  accidents  of  sampling  because  in  one 
species  there  were  over  9000  specimens 
collected  in  more  than  30  counties,  over 
a  span  of  eight  months  of  the  year,  and 
all  were  females.  I  was  forced  to  con- 
clude that  these  species  were  able  to  re- 
produce without  males — a  phenomenon 
that  is  well-known,  though  spotty,  in  the 
animal  kingdom  and  which  is  termed 

Why  is  there  such  an  unusually  high 
incidence  of  parthenogenesis  in  these 
tiny  animals?  In  the  long  run,  par- 
thenogenesis is  considered  an  evolution- 
ary dead  end  because  it  precludes  ex- 
change and  recombination  of  hereditary 
materials  between  different  individuals 
through  mating  and  thus  inhibits  adapt- 
ation to  changing  circumstances.  In 
the  short  run,  though,  there  may  be 
several  advantages.  One  that  is  par- 
ticularly relevant  is  that  all  the  eggs 
produce  reproductive  females;  none  are 
wasted  on  males.  In  effect  partheno- 
genesis doubles  the  reproductive  po- 
tential of  a  population  in  one  jump — 
an  enormous  advantage  to  insects  that 
mature  one  egg  at  a  time.  So  I  arrive 
at  a  final  thesis.  Obscure  as  they  are, 
there  may  be  a  real  relevance  in  study- 
ing such  tiny  insects.  They  are  impor- 
tant in  their  own  right  because  of  their 
activities  and  because  of  their  complex 
relations  with  other  forms  of  life  in  our 
fields  and  forests.  And  because  they  are 
faced  with  extreme  problems  as  a  result 
of  their  small  size,  their  study  can  pro- 
vide insights  into  problems  of  general 
biological  interest. 

Paged    APRIL 

MOUNTAIN  BUILDING  BY  VERTICAL  MOVEMENTS — As  we  have  noted  earlier, 
there  has  been  a  revival  during  the  last  thirty-five  years  of  the  old  concept 
of  the  fundamental  importance  of  vertical  movements  in  the  evolution  of  crustal 
structures,  particularly  in  mountain  building.  The  significance  of  these  hypo- 
theses is  that  the  folding  and  thrusting  of  rocks  as  well  as  their  uplift  is  explained 
as  arising  from  vertical  movements.  They  dispense  with  the  idea  of  primary 
horizontal  compressional  forces  transmitted  through  the  crust,  which  is  the 
heart  of  the  contraction  theory.  The  geologists  investigating  the  structure  of  the 
youthful  mountains  of  the  Indonesian  islands  and  those  working  in  the  diverse 

mountain  building  IV 

By  Bertram  G.  Woodland,  Curator,  Igneous  and  Metamorphic  Petrology 

orogenic  and  non-orogenic  regions  of  the  Soviet  Union  were  impressed  with  the 
evidence  of  alternating  vertical  uplift  and  subsidence  of  the  crust.  At  the  same 
time  they  believed  that  it  was  unlikely  that  sufficient  lateral  compressional  force 
could  be  transmitted  through  the  crust  to  explain  the  crustal  thickening,  uplift, 
and  deformation  of  a  whole  orogenic  belt.  This  view  was  enhanced  when  the 
contraction  theory  met  the  difficulty  that  the  earth  may  not  be  cooling.  These 
geologists  also  argued  against  the  existence  of  convection  currents  in  the  mantle, 
which  are  used  in  another  group  of  theories  to  explain  the  cause  of  lateral  com- 
pression and  mountain  building. 

Differential  vertical  movements  can  readily  explain  many  geological  phe- 
nomena. Variations  in  thickness  and  type  of  sedimentary  deposit  from  place  to 
place  can  be  related  to  varying  amounts  and  varying  rates  of  uplift  or  subsidence. 
The  deposition  of  vast  thicknesses  of  sediment  in  a  geosyncline  requires. a  sub- 
sidence of  the  crust  of  similar  degree,  assuming  the  sediments  were  all  laid  down 
under  relatively  shallow  water.  We  have  already  mentioned,  however,  that 
large  amounts  of  typical  geosynclinal  sediments  may,  in  fact,  have  been  deposited 
in  deep  water,  but,  because  at  least  some  of  these  previous  geosynclines  were ' 
developed  on  a  continental  crust,  a  large  subsidence  would  still  be  necessary  to 
depress  the  crust  to  oceanic  depths.  The  effects  of  differential  uplift  can  be  seen 
most  obviously  in  the  towering  mountain  ranges  of  the  Rockies,  Alps  and  • 
Himalayas,  the  higher  parts  of  which  were  near  sea  level  some  few  tens  of 
millions  of  years  ago.  No  one  can  thus  dispute  the  importance  of  vertical  move- 
ments. The  big  question  is: — How  do  the  advocates  of  mountain  building  by 
primary  vertical  movements  explain  the  universal  appearance  in  orogenic  belts 
of  folding  of  the  rocks  on  all  scales,  the  thrusting  of  large  sheets  over  others,  and 
the  development  of  pervasive  metamorphic  structures  such  as  cleavage?  These 
are  all  manifestations  of  compression  which  generally  acted  parallel  to  the  • 
earth's  surface.  They  are  interpreted  as  being  of  local  origin,  that  is,  originating 
within  the  orogenic  belt  as  a  consequence  of  the  primary  vertical  movements, 

APRIL     Page  5 

and  are  referred  to  as  secondary  gravitational  reactions.  The 
structures  produced  depend  on  their  chronological  appear- 
ance and  their  depth  within  the  crust. 

The  sequence  of  events  may  take  the  following  form.  A 
geosyncline  develops,  is  filled  with  sediment  and  basic  vol- 
canic rocks,  and  then  uplifted,  particularly  in  its  thickest  por- 
tion. The  areas  adjacent  to  the  uplifted  geanticline  subside, 
continue  to  receive  sediments,  and  form  new  geosynclines. 
The  rising  sedimentary  mass  becomes  unstable,  and  under  the 
influence  of  gravity,  adjustments  take  place.  Large  slices  may 
start  to  move  down  slightly  inclined  slopes.  The  conditions 
which  enable  the  whole  to  slide  as  a  coherent  mass  include 
the  presence  of  a  lubricated  zone  of  plastic  rock  material  such 
as  clay,  and  the  presence  of  water  filling  pores  in  the  basal 
strata  of  the  sliding  mass  under  pressure  of  the  overlying  rock. 
Also,  gravity  affects  each  and  every  particle,  and  is  thus  more 
fxjtent  than  a  shoving  force  applied  from  behind  the  mass  as 

rocks  by  compressing  and  folding  them  laterally,  by  dragging 
them  along  upwards,  and  by  doming  those  above.  The  gran- 
ite mass  is  charged  with  hot  solutions  and  gases  which  pass 
outwards  and  metamorphose  the  sediments  rendering  them 
more  mobile,  so  that  they  in  turn  flow  from  regions  of  greater 
pressure  to  regions  of  lower  pressure,  forming  intricate  folds. 
If  the  rising  mass  should  meet  a  strong  resistance  to  continued 
upward  progress,  it  may  well  turn  sideways  and  flow  more  or 
less  horizontally,  dragging  with  it  its  envelope  of  metamor- 
phosed sedimentary  rocks  and  producing  large  scale  hori- 
zontal or  recumbent  folds  with  granitic  cores.  Such  complex 
structures  are  exhibited  on  fjord  walls  of  eastern  Greenland 
and  in  the  Pennine  .Ailps  (within  which  is  the  famed  Matter- 
horn).  In  the  shallower  parts  of  the  crust,  injection  structures 
may  also  arise  by  vertical  flow  of  low  density  masses  of  rock 
salt  and  anhydrite  (calcium  sulfate).  Differential  vertical 
loads  may  cause  flow  to  particular  zones  of  upward  movement 

A  possible  effect  of  uplift  followed  by  subsidence:  (a)  a  series  of  horizontal  strata; 

(b)  uplift  with  consequent  stretching  and  thinning  of  the  beds 

(c)  subsidence  with  folding  of  the  stretched  beds. 

is  envisaged  in  the  horizontal  force  concept  of  thrust  blocks. 
Obstructions  at  the  front  end  of  the  slice  will  cause  buckling, 
or  it  may  be  that  some  parts  overtake  others,  roll  over  them 
and  form  large  complex  overfolded  masses.  Sliding  of  large 
rock  masses  into  an  adjacent  sedimentary  basin  may  also 
cause  slumping  and  folding  of  the  newly  deposited  sediments. 
The  rocks  of  the  upper  part  of  a  rising  block  tend  to  expand 
sideways,  under  the  influence  of  gravity,  over  the  adjacent 
lower  blocks.  This  results  in  compression  of  the  latter's  upper 
strata,  which  may  crumple  and  fold.  Squeezing  of  strata  may 
also  arise  if  thick  sediments  on  the  flanks  of  a  geosyncline  tend 
to  move  down  into  the  basin.  The  thickened  sediments  may 
crumple  as  they  slump  inwards  and  downwards  and  the  deep- 
est central  zone  may  become  compressed  into  very  tight  folds 
on  all  scales.  The  rise  of  a  large  welt  also  results  in  the  stretch- 
ing and  thinning  of  the  overlying  sedimentary  layer  as  it 
accomodates  to  the  increased  area.  If  the  uplift  should  then 
subside,  the  layers  which  are  too  long,  crumple  and  fold  as 
they  settle  down  on  the  receding  block. 

Complex  deformation  may  also  arise  through  diflferences 
in  density  of  rock  masses.  The  deep  crust  beneath  a  geosyn- 
cline. say  over  10  miles  in  depth,  is  believed  to  be  affected  by 
granite-forming  processes.  Granite  has  a  lower  density  than 
average  crustal  rocks  and  buoyancy  will  move  it  upward 
through  the  denser  rocks,  much  as  oil  droplets  released  under 
water  rise  to  the  surface.  This  rising  mass,  continually  being 
added  to  from  below,  deforms  the  surrounding  geosynclinal 

resulting  in,  for  example,  the  salt  domes  of  the  Gulf  coastal 
regions.  Differential  vertical  uplifts  may  also  initiate  move- 
ment of  the  low  density  bedded  deposits  to  linear  weakened 
zones  where  they  thicken  and  cause  folding  of  the  cover  rocks. 
The  fold  mountains  of  the  Jura  in  northwest  Switzerland  and 
adjacent  France  and  Germany  are  explained  in  this  way. 

Causes  of  Vertical  Movements 

The  cause  of  primary  vertical  movements  is  considered 
to  be  continuing  chemical  adjustments  of  the  mantie  rocks  in 
the  earth's  gravitational  field.  The  changes  involve  produc- 
tion of  less  dense  and  more  dense  minerals  which  tend  to 
move  in  relation  to  one  another;  the  lighter  rising,  the  heavier 
sinking.  The  reactions  result  in  changes  of  density  and  volume 
and,  together  with  the  decay  of  radioactive  elements,  release 
heat  which  in  turn  causes  thermal  expansion  and  promotes 
mass  movements.  Beneath  orogenic  belts  differentiation  of  the 
upper  mantle  is  supposed  to  form  granitic  masses  rich  in  fluids 
and  gases  which  rise  into  the  lower  crust.  Magma,  formed  by 
melting  of  crustal  rocks  and  mixed  with  basaltic  mapna,  rises 
upchannelways  to  produce  the  andesitic  volcanism  that  char- 
acterizes orogenic  belts  and  the  circum-Pacific  island  arcs. 
Differentiation  of  the  mantle  rock  increases  the  volume  and 
causes  uplift,  which  is  further  accentuated  by  the  buoyant 
rise  of  granitic  masses  causing  the  structures  previously  des- 
cribed. The  upward  'flow'  of  lighter  rocks  is  accompanied  by 
inward  'flow'  of  heavier  mantle  rock  from  adjacent  areas,  the 

Page  6    APRIL 

surface  of  which  consequently  subsides  and  forms  new  geo- 
synclinal  basins  to  receive  the  erosional  products  and  gravity- 
induced  slump  from  the  rising  geanticline.  In  turn,  the  new 
geosynclinal  areas  become  subject  to  uplift  and  the  cycle  be- 
gins anew.  Thus  the  migration  of  orogenic  belts  is  explained. 
Variations  in  the  chronology  of  subsidence  and  uplift  later- 
ally along  an  orogenic  belt  are  presumed  to  be  caused  by 
differing  incidence  and  rates  of  differentiation  in  the  mantle. 
Outflows  of  basic  volcanic  material  into  the  subsiding  areas 
may  cause  these  areas  to  subside  more  rapidly  than  they  can 
be  filled  with  sediments  and  so  produce  the  deep  sea  trenches 
that  accompany  the  island  arcs  of  the  Pacific. 

In  these  ways  the  proponents  of  vertical  movements  ex- 
plain the  process  of  mountain  building,  volcanism,  and  in- 
trusion of  thousands  of  cubic  miles  of  granite.  In  addition, 
structures  of  both  the  stable  platforms  and  ocean  basins  are 
referred  to  the  operation  of  vertical  movements.    Whereas 

Crumpling  produced  by  compressive  settling  into  a  depositional  basin 
from  the  higher  margins.    Length  of  section  may  be  up  to  75  miles. 

mountain  building  is  considered  a  process  of  continental 
growth,  evidence  pointing  to  the  previous  existence  of  land 
where  there  is  now  ocean  is  considered  to  indicate  a  reverse 
process  of  'oceanization.'  This  results  from  massive  extru- 
sion of  basalt  which  causes  foundering  of  the  sial  and  down- 
sinking.  Areas  such  as  the  North  Atlantic  between  Green- 
land, Iceland  and  Scotland,  the  western  Mediterranean,  and 
the  Sea  of  Japan  are  supposed  to  be  geologically  young  and 
to  have  originated  through  oceanization.  A  problem  that 
arises  is. — What  is  the  fate  of  the  sialic  layers,  inasmuch  as 
these  oceanic  areas  give  no  evidence  of  their  presence,  seis- 
mically  or  gravimetrically?  Several  solutions  are  proposed : 
(1)  The  sial  is  reabsorbed  at  depth.  There  is  no  evidence  to 
support  this  and  it  seems  strange  that  a  process  should  operate 
in  the  upper  mantle  which  is  the  reverse  of  the  differentiation 
process  required  by  mountain  building.  This  idea  iscountered 
by  the  suggestion  (2)  that  basaltic  extrusion  and  oceani- 
zation are  a  developing  trend  in  the  evolution  of  the  earth 
resulting  from  a  gradual  change  in  the  differentiation  process 
as  the  amount  of  granitic  components  in  the  mantle  declines. 
The  gradual  deepening  of  large  areas  of  the  Pacific  during  the 
last  75  to  100  million  years,  as  evidenced  by  the  submerged 
guyots  and  volcanic  cones  of  the  atolls,  is  also  given  to  support 
this  suggestion.  Another  explanation,  (3)  is  that  the  founder- 
ed sial  occurs  beneath  oceanized  zones,  which  form  trenches. 
But  since  the  sialic  rocks  are  unstable  at  great  depths,  moving 
upwards  and  outwards  towards  the  continent  to  produce  all 

recent  acquisitions — anthropology 


TIE-DYEING  AS  .\  METHOD  of  applying  design  to  cloth  without 
the  use  of  brushes,  printing  blocks,  or  other  tools  more  elab- 
orate than  string  and  the  dye  itself,  has  been  known  in  parts 
of  Asia,  Africa,  and  Europe  for  many  centuries.  The  Mu- 
seum is  happy  to  have  received  this  example  of  the  process 
in  various  stages,  as  the  gift  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  Strotz 
of  Evanston,  Illinois,  who  collected  it  among  the  Hausa  peo- 
ple at  Kano  in  Northern  Nigeria. 

The  white  cloth  used  is  a  cotton  of  European  manufac- 
ture. The  first  photo  shows  the  cloth  before  dyeing,  but 
already  gathered  up  and  tied  with  strings,  to  form  a  design 
that  will  appear  after  the  cloth  has  been  dipped  and  untied. 
The  second  photo  shows  the  cloth  after  dyeing,  with  the  tied 
"packages"  still  in  place.  The  dye  has  not  fully  penetrated  in- 
to these  packages.  As  seen  in  the  third  photo,  where  the  cloth 
has  been  untied  after  dyeing  and  drying,  the  finished  cloth  re- 
veals the  patterns  made  by  the  undyed  parts  contrasting  with 
the  dyed  background  color.  Patterns  can  be  very  diverse, 
depending  on  how  the  cloth  is  taken  up  and  tied.  This  speci- 
men shows  a  Yoruba  pattern  adopted  by  Hausa  dyers. 

Dark  blue  is  the  customary  color  used  in  northern  and 
western  Nigeria.  Formerly  indigo  was  used,  but  as  in  this 
specimen,  European  commercial  dyes  are  supplanting  it. 

Note  that  the  cloth  in  the  first  photo  is  tied  in  a  somewhat 
different  pattern  from  that  in  the  other  two. 

— Leon  Siroto,  Assistant  Curator,  African  Ethnology 

APRIL     Page  7 

recent  acquisitions — library 



The  Museum  has  become  the  fortunate  recipient  of  two 
letters  of  the  artist-naturalist,  John  James  Audubon  (1785- 
1851).  Both  date  from  the  time  when  he  had  completed  his 
great  work  of  describing  and  painting  the  birds  of  America 
and  was,  with  the  aid  of  his  sons  and  the  Rev.  John  Bachman, 
preparing  The  Viviparous  Quadrupeds  of  North  Ametica. 

The  first  letter,  the  gift  of  Mr.  Herbert  R.  Strauss,  is  un- 
dated and  not  in  Audubon's  handwriting,  but  is  signed  by 
him.  It  is  addressed  to  David  Camden  de  Leon  (1822-1872), 
who  served  as  a  surgeon  in  the  U.  S.  Army  in  Florida  and 
Mexico  and  as  head  of  the  Medical  Department  of  the  Con- 
federate Army.  Audubon  requests  him  to  obtain  "specimens 
of  such  viviparous  quadrupeds  as  may  be  found  with  the 
limits  of  your  jurisdiction  [i.e.,  Middle  Florida],  or  beyond 
that,  if  opportunity  offers"  and  gives  De  Leon  some  instruc- 
tions for  preparing  and  preserving  them,  including  the  follow- 
ing: "Very  small  quadrupeds  would  be  better  if  put  into  jars 
of  New  England  ruin  whole — only  cutting  a  slight  slit  in  the 
belly  to  allow  the  spirit  to  saturate  their  entrails.  Whiskey 
or  alcohol  will  not  do  so  well,  as  they  cause  the  hair  to 
come  off." 

The  second  letter,  given  anonymously,  is  completely  in 
Audubon's  hand  and  is  dated  New  York,  Dec.  26th  [?],  1845. 
It  is  addressed  to  Titian  Ramsay  Peale  (1799-1885),  an  artist- 
naturalist  who  illustrated  several  important  works  of  Amer- 
ican natural  history.  Audubon  requests  the  loan  of  a  "fine 
painting  of  a  black-tailed  deer"  and  writes  that  he  "will  not 
keep  it  above  three  or  four  days,  and  will  return  it  to  you,  in 
the  same  order  in  which  I  received  it.  .  .  ."  He  concludes, 
"It  is  now  a  long  time  since  we  have  met,  but  [I]  have  some 
hopes  of  doing  this  in  the  course  of  this  winter.  With  the  good 
wishes  of  the  season,  believe  me  Mr.  Peale,  your  sincerely 
attached  friend  &  o[bedient]  serv[ant],  John  J.  Audubon." 

Both  letters  will  be  on  display  in  the  Library  during  the 
month  of  April.  — W.  Peyton  Fawcett,  Associate  Librarian 

Pages    APRIL 

the  phenomena  of  mountain  building  deformation  described 
above,  (i.e.,  metamorphism,  volcanism,  and  granitizations). 
Such  ideas  retain  many  of  the  explanatory  concepts  of  vertical 
movement  but  reintroduce  the  necessity  of  lateral  movement. 
Vertical  movements  in  the  crust  and  mantle  are  im- 
portant since  they  occur  by  isostatic  adjustment  to  loading 
or  unloading  of  the  crust,  or  to  changes  in  density.  But  apart 
from  requiring  such  movements  to  explain  the  uplift  of  areas 
such  as  the  Colorado  Plateau,  uplift  and  subsidence  are 
essential  elements  to  mountain  building.  Vertical  move- 
ments were  formerly  regarded  as  mere  resultants  of  a  system 
of  lateral  compression  which  was  required  to  explain  the 
apparent  shortening  and  thickening  of  the  crust  by  folding 
and  thrusting.  It  is  now  clear,  however,  that  many  of  these 
latter  structures  are  more  readily  explained  as  resultants  of 
vertical  movements.  The  exponents  of  the  primary  import- 
ance of  vertical  movements  consider  lateral  compression  as  a 
local  phenomenon  arising  within  the  orogenic  belt  itself  with 
the  resulting  folding  and  thrusting  as  secondary  effects.    Evi- 

dence has  been  accumulating  during  the  last  twenty  to  thirty 
years  which  indicates  that  primary  vertical  movement  of 
crustal  blocks  is  a  powerful  means  of  explaining  many  struc- 
tural relations.  Thus,  the  separate  ranges  of  the  Rocky 
Mountains,  such  as  the  Front  Range  in  Colorado,  with  their 
crystalline  granitic  cores  and  overlying  deformed  bedded 
sedimentary  rocks  are  the  result  of  primary  vertical  uplift. 
Differential  uplift  and  subsidence,  reaching  from  five  to  ten 
miles  in  some  places,  began  between  about  100  and  75  million 
years  ago,  and  uplifts  of  over  a  mile  have  taken  place  over 
the  last  few  million  years.  The  rising  blocks  were  subject  to 
erosion,  while  thick  sediments  accumulated  in  the  interven- 
ing basin.  Folds  and  faults  formed  along  the  flanks  as  aeon- 
sequence  of  the  uplift  and  in  the  more  strongly  uplifted  seg- 
ments, large  slices  of  sedimentary  rocks  glided  under  gravity 
to  form  far-travelled  thrust  sheets.  However,  the  Rocky 
Mountains  differ  from  a  typical  orogenic  belt  in  that  the  up- 
lifts were  accompanied  by  only  a  relatively  small  amount  of 
igneous  intrusion  and  metamorphism,  at  least  at  the  level  in 
the  crust  now  exposed  by  erosion.  Large  granitic  intrusions, 
dated  at  between  80  and  140  million  years  ago,  occur  to  the 
west  in  the  Sierra  Nevada  Mountains  of  California,  in  Idaho, 
and  in  the  Coast  Ranges  of  British  Columbia.  These  seem 
unrelated  to  the  Rocky  Mountain  uplift,  although  apparently 
marked  uplift  of  the  Sierra  Nevadas  also  has  taken  place 
since  about  five  million  years  ago. 

Top  Right:  Vertical  section  of  the  upper  crust  illustrat- 
ing various  structures  resulting  from  vertical  movement: 
(a)  fold  of  plastic  clay  squeezed  upward  by  buoyancy;  (b) 
folding  by  sliding  of  beds  from  an  uplifted  mass;  (c)  folds 
formed  by  movement  of  plastic  rock  salt  and/or  gypsum  la 
fault  zones  etc.;  (d)  crumpling  produced  by  force  of  out- 
ward moving  uplifted  block.  Length  of  section  about  15 

Middle,  Right:  Sliding  and  overfolding  of  strata  to  the 
left  following  differential  uplift  of  the  right  side. 

Below,  Left  :  Vertical  section  showing  a  rising  mass  of 
granitic  rock  {the  core)  which  has  turned  sideways  and  pro- 
duced large  horizontally  folded  masses.  The  envelope  of 
the  core  is  composed  of  intensely  deformed  and  metamor- 
phosed rocks,  while  the  upper  beds  are  folded  sediments. 
Length  of  section,  about  20  miles. 

Below:  Vertical  section  showing  folded  and  now  detached 
masses  which  have  slid,  under  the  influence  of  gravity,  off 
the  flank  of  a  rising  mass.  Length  of  section  about  50  miles. 

Problems  arise  with  the  concept  of  vertical  differentiation 
of  the  mantle  as  the  primary  controlling  mechanism  of  crustal 
structure  and  evolution.  First,  there  is  doubt  that  the  chem- 
ical differentiation  and  the  attendant  vertical  adjustments  of 
mantle  material  could  take  place  over  a  sufficient  depth  in 
the  space  of  time  required  for  the  evolution  of  any  single 
erogenic  belt. 

Secondly,  the  location  of  the  orogenic  belts  would  be 
governed  by  the  location  of  the  changes  in  the  deep  mantle, 
yet  the  former  seems  to  show  a  relationship  to  the  distribution 
of  oceanic  and  continental  crust;  it  is  not  clear  how  this  would 
arise.  It  is  also  assumed  that  the  andesitic  and  related  vol- 
canic products  of  orogenic  regions  and  the  granitic  intrusion 
material,  in  part  responsible  for  the  uplift  and  secondary 
deformation,  are  new  sialic  material,  added  to  the  crust  by 
differentiation  from  the  mantle.  The  origin  of  these  rocks 
remains  a  problem  but  it  is  by  no  means  certain  that  the  bulk 
of  them  is  derived  from  the  mantle.  One  alternative  is  that 
they  are  largely  derived  from  pre-existing  sial  (with  some 
addition  of  manUe-derived  material)  and  that  their  accumu- 
lation requires  more  than  just  vertical  movement  but  lateral 
displacement  as  well.  Further,  it  is  suggested  that  the  mantle 
may  have  largely  spent  its  ability  to  produce  large  quantities 
of  granite  in  the  early  phases  of  earth  evolution  when  the  sial 
was  formed. 

Another  difficulty  is  that  many  granite  intrusions  have 

a  much  younger  radioactive  decay  date  than  the  deformed 
metamorphic  rocks  that  surround  them.  This  may  reflect 
their  respective  cooling  histories.  That  is,  the  granite  main- 
tained a  higher  temperature  at  greater  depth  for  a  long  time 
after  the  metamorphic  rocks  had  cooled.  The  granite's  age 
would  then  be  recorded  from  some  stage  in  its  delayed  cool- 
ing. The  granite  moved  into  its  present  position  long  after 
the  metamorphism.  However,  it  may  also  mean  that  the 
granite  has  no  relationship  to  the  metamorphism,  or,  at  least, 
a  much  less  direct  one  than  is  implied  in  the  usual  causal 
relationship  in  orogenic  belts  claimed  by  "vertical  movement 

Lasdy,  the  evidence  of  large  lateral  movements  of  crustal 
blocks,  both  continental  and  oceanic,  indicates  the  operation 
of  forces  other  than  just  vertical  ones.  This  evidence  has 
become  more  compelling  within  the  last  decade.  Even  pro- 
ponents of  primary  control  by  vertical  movements  admit  that 
lateral  movements  may  be  propelled  by  lateral  mass  transfers 
in  the  upper  mantle  although  they  relate  these  to  funda- 
mental differentiation  and  vertical  movements  in  the  deep 
mantle.  This  then  leads  to  the  last  remaining  series  of 
theories  of  mountain  building,  namely,  theories  that  consider 
convection  currents,  slow  circulations  of  mass  in  the  mantle, 
as  the  source  of  orogenic  forces. 

This  article  will  he  concluded  in  a  subsequent  issue  of  the  Bulletin. 

,  APRIL    Page  9 

By  Austin  L.  Rand,  Chief  Curator,  ^oology 

of  Southeast  Asia 

Visitors  to  Field  Museum  who  have  more  than  the  gen- 
eral political  interest  in  Viet  Nam  will  find  exhibits  which 
give  them  a  very  good  idea  of  the  country  in  which  so  many 
Americans  are  now  engaged.  The  political  boundaries  of 
North  and  South  Met  Nam  encompass  a  band  1,000  miles 
long  and  from  30  to  330  miles  wide  along  the  eastern  edge 
of  the  Indo-Chinese  Peninsula,  facing  the  South  China  Sea. 
The  topography  is  dominated  by  deltas  and  coastal  alluvial 
plains,  back  of  which  rise  mountains  reaching  about  11,000 
feet  in  the  north,  and  6,000  in  the  south.  Lying  in  the  same 
latitudes  as  Central  America,  the  country  is  tropical,  with 
ample  rainfall  which  falls  chiefly  in  the  summer,  and  temper- 
atures near  80°  F.  all  year  in  the  south.  The  vegetation  is 
chiefly  evergreen  tropical  forest,  and  rice  is  the  chief  crop. 
The  ancient  people  of  Indo-China  were  Indonesians,  but 
Mongol-like  immigrants  from  the  north  mingled  with  them 
evolving  many  local  sub-races.  Although  China  has  greatly 
influenced  Viet-Nainese  culture,  it  is  apparent  that  there  is 
also  a  strong  Hindu  influence  from  earlier  times. 

The  Museum's  zoology  exhibits  provide  life-like  views  of 
the  various  kinds  of  country  in  Viet  Nam,  and  the  plant  and 
animal  life  found  in  each. 

One  of  the  bird  habitat  groups  exhibited  in  Hall  20  is  set 
in  the  forested  terrain  of  Viet  Nam.  Actual  native  branches 
and  leaves  and  mounted  specimens  are  used.  The  back- 
ground is  painted  from  photographs  made  in  the  country: — 

night  approaches,  the  bird  and  his  mates  will  return  to  the 
trees.  A  view  of  this  exhibit  is  like  looking  through  a  window 
onto  the  Viet  Nam  countryside. 

Nearby,  both  in  the  Viet  Nam  forest  and  in  the  Museum 
exhibit  arrangement,  a  family  band  of  gibbons,  the  smallest 
of  the  great  apes,  swings  through  the  treetops.  The  white 
female  has  a  young  one  clinging  to  her  breast;  the  old  black 
male  pauses  on  a  branch,  holding  himself  upright  with  one 
hand  as  he  plucks  a  red  fruit.  A  young  male  is  swinging  by 
his  arms  from  branch  to  branch  (a  mode  of  travel  called 
brachiating).  The  other  young  male,  also  black,  is  flying 
through  the  air  spread-eagled,  to  grasp  a  branch  on  the  far 
side  of  a  gap  in  the  tree-top  canopy.  Like  the  peafowl,  the 
gibbons  sleep  in  trees,  however  they  rarely  descend  to  the 
ground.  But  they  do  greet  the  new  day  with  their  calls:  — 
one  starts  to  howl,  the  rest  of  the  family  takes  it  up,  family 
calls  to  family,  and  the  forest  rings  with  their  calling. 

Another  exhibit,  set  on  the  edge  of  a  forest  clearing  in  the 
rugged  mountains  of  central  Viet  Nam,  shows  a  sable  bull 
gaur,  finest  of  the  wild  oxen.  With  him  is  a  cow,  less  bulky, 
and  more  brown  in  color,  and  her  brown  calf  with  button 
horns.  These  forest  cattle  are  distantly  related  to  the  beef 
cattle  of  the  Middle  West,  but  they  have  a  sculptured, 
majestic  beauty  which  has  long  since  been  lost  by  their 
domesticated  relatives. 

While  the  gaur  lives  in  the  mountain  forest  and  is  a  stately 


the  time  is  early  morning;  a  peacock  and  a  hen  sit  on  a  dead 
branch  above  the  forest,  overlooking  the  mist-filled  valleys 
and  the  tiers  of  mountains  losing  themselves  in  hazy  distance. 
The  cock,  with  his  gorgeous  train  closed,  opens  his  mouth  to 
give  the  loud,  trumpet-like  call  with  which  he  heralds  the 
new  day.  Soon  he  and  his  consorts  will  fly  down  to  the 
forest  floor  or  the  edge  of  a  clearing  to  feed.  Then  the  pea- 
cock will  display,  spreading  his  train  into  a  great  fan  over  his 
back  and  quivering  his  wings  and  shuffling  his  feet.    When 

Water  Buffalo 

beast,  the  water  buflTalo,  shown  in  another  habitat  exhibit, 
lives  in  the  tall  reeds,  brakes,  grassy  plains,  swamps  and 
marshes  of  the  hot  lowlands.  The  buff"alo  has  a  great,  heavy 
body,  short  legs,  and  long,  curved,  backward-sweeping  horns. 
There  are  both  wild  and  domesticated  varieties,  much  alike 
in  appearance.  The  domestic  bufTalo  is  used  to  draw  carts 
and  prepare  rice  fields.  The  herds  of  wild  buffalo  sometimes 
come  into  cultivated  fields  to  feed,  and  have  the  reputation 
of  being  savage  and  unpredictable  in  temperament.    As  their 

MAT    Page  11 


Through  April  13  New  Guinea  Paintinos 

Continuation  of  a  special  exhibition  of 
paintings   and  drawings  by    the    Abelain 
people  of  New  Guinea  and  the  Kilenge  of 
New  Britain.    Hall  9  Gallery. 
April  1 — April  30  A  Medley  of  Birds 

An  exhibition  of  24  paintings,  by  Mrs.  Florence  Guise,  featuring  birds  of  the 
mid-western  United  States.    Stanley  Field  Hall. 
April  9  Movie :  Aiktralia 

A  study  of  the  people  and  natural  wealth  of  the  land  "down  under".    Narrated 
by  Charles  Forbes  Taylor.    Adults.    2:30  P.M.    James  Simpson  Theatre. 

April  16  Movie :  High  Arctic 

Intimate  documentary  on  the  life  of  the  northernmost  Eskimos,  by  explorer 
Lewis  Cotlow.    Adults.    2:30  P.M.   James  Simpson  Theatre. 
April  16  Girl  Scout  Day :  Summer  Scouts  Go,  Go,  Go 

A  look  at  new  summer  scout  activities-travel  camps,  art  programs  and  day 
trips.    10:30  A.M.    James  Simpson  Theatre. 
April  19  The  Indi.wa  University  Opera  The.^ter 

University  Theater  presents  "Opera  Gala."  8:15  P.M.  James  Simpson  Theatre 
April  23  Movie:  Timeless  Turkey 

Turkey  seen  as  a  bridge  between  the  East  and  the  West.    Adults.    2:30  P.M. 
James  Simpson  Theatre. 
April  23  Camp  Fire  Girl  Day:    Weather  and  the  Sp.\ce  .\ge 

Featuring  P.  J.  HoflT,  CBS  weather  man.  10:30  A.M.  James  Simpson  Theatre. 
April  30  Movie :  Puerto  Rico 

A  film  tour  of  the  island  as  seen  through  the  eyes  of  its  natives.    Adults.    2:30 
P.M.  James  Simpson  Theatre. 
April  30  Cub  Scout  Day:  On  Earth? 

Color  motion  picture  on  the  world  of  nature  by  Fran  William  Hall.  10:30  A.M. 
James  Simpson  Theatre. 

Nature  Camera  Club,  April  12  at  7:30 
Orchid  Society,  April  17  at  2  P.M. 
Shell  Club,  April  24  at  2  P.M. 


Open  to  interested  persons 

Southeast  Asia  (cont.) 

name  implies,  they  enter  water  readily  and  may  frequently  be  seen  submerged, 
with  only  nostrils  and  eyes  projecting  above  the  mud  and  water. 

These  are  our  four  large  habitat  groups  showing  the  main  habitats  in  Viet 
Nam: — mountain,  plain,  forest,  grass  and  swamp  land.  Other  striking  animals 
whose  ranges  are  common  to  Viet  Nam  and  India  as  well,  are  shown  in  nearby 
dioramas  with  Indian  backgrounds — a  pair  of  tigers  in  the  tall  grass  with  their 
wild -hog  kill;  a  leopard  crouched  on  the  branch  of  a  forest  tree;  and  a  group  of 
elk-size  sambur  deer  on  a  dry  river  bed  in  light  forest. 

Scattered  through  our  systematic  series  are  individual  specimens  of  birds, 
mammals  and  reptiles  that  illustrate  types  occurring  in  Viet  Nam,  such  as  babbling 
thrushes,  various  pheasants,  fairy  blue  birds,  warblers,  flycatchers,  sunbirds, 
monitor  lizards,  pythons  and  cobras.  Further  material  on  the  zoology  of  \'iet 
Nam  is  available  in  our  study  collections,  which  have  recently  been  enriched  by 
several  large  collections  of  Viet  Namese  birds  and  mammals. 



Roosevelt  Rd.  &  Lake  Shore  Drive 
Chicago.  Illinois  60605 

Founded  by  Marshall  Field,  1893 


Lesler  Armour 
Harry  0.  Dercher 
William  McCormick  Blair 
Bowen  Blair 
Walter  J.  Cummings 
Joseph  N.  Field 
Paul  W.  Goodrich 
Clifford  C.  Gregg 
Samuel  Insull,  Jr. 
Henry  P.  Isham 
Hughslon  M.  McBain 
Remick  McDowell 
J.  Roscoe  Miller 
William  H.  Mitchell 
James  L.  Palmer 
John  T.  Pirie,  Jr. 
John  Shedd  Reed 
John  G.  Searle 
John  M.  Simpson 
Edward  Byron  Smith 
Louis  Ware 
E.  Leland  Webber 
J.  Howard  Wood 


William  V.  Kahler 


Page   12     APRIL 

James  L.  Palmer,  President 

Clifford  C.  Gregg,  First  Vice-President 

Joseph  N.  Field,  Second  Vice-President 

Bowen  Blair,  Third  Vice-President 

Edward  Byron  Smith, 

Treasurer  and  Assistant  Secretary 

E.  Leland  Webber,  Secretary 


E.  Leland  Webber 


Donald  Collier, 

Department  of  Anthropology 

Louis  O.  Williams, 

Department  of  Botany 

Rainer  ^angerl. 

Department  of  Geology 

Austin  L.  Rand, 

Department  of  ^oology 


Edward  G.  Nash,  Managing  Editor 
Beatrice  Paul, 

Kathleen  Wolff, 

Associate  Editors 


Volume  37,  Number  5    May,  1966 

mountain  building  V 


By  Bertram  G.  Woodland,  Curator,  Igneous  and  Metamorphic  Petrology 

Convection  Current  Hypotheses.- — Both  from  theo- 
retical considerations  and  in  attempts  to  explain  crustal  phe- 
nomena such  as  mountain  building  and  volcanism,  currents 
in  the  sub-crustal  layers  have  been  postulated  from  time  to 
time  for  over  a  hundred  years.  In  1928  Wegener,  one  of  the 
earlier  and  better-known  advocates  of  continental  drift,  sug- 
gested them  as  possible  mechanisms  for  moving  continents. 
In  general,  this  was  no  more  acceptable  than  the  drift  hy- 
pot  hesis.  One  of  the  major  objections  was  that  the  mantle, 
by  then  considered  to  be  crystalline,  could  not  flow.  How- 
ever, it  has  been  shown  that  solids,  particularly  at  high  tem- 
peratures and  pressures,  will  deform  by  plastic  flow  or  'creep' 
if  subjected  to  relatively  small  differential  stress  for  periods  of 
time  of  geological  significance,  that  is,  for  tens  of  millions 
of  years.  In  addition,  it  has  been  calculated  that  the  rates  of 
flow  indicated  by  certain  crustal  phenomena,  a  half  inch  to 
two  inches  per  year,  are  theoretically  possible. 

In  the  1930's  some  model  experiments  were  made  to  in- 
vestigate the  effect  of  mantle  currents  on  the  crust.  The 
currents  were  simulated  by  contra-rotating  drums  in  a  suit- 
able medium  at  a  scaled -down  speed.  The  overlying  'crust' 
reacted  to  the  currents  by  thickening  and  dragging  down  into 
the  underlying  media  over  the  zone  between  the  drums.  The 
thickened  zone  also  showed  thrust  zones  directed  outward 
from  the  center  line.  These  results  strongly  supported  the 
idea  of  mantle  currents  as  the  driving  force  of  orogenic  belts, 
and  adherents  to  the  hypothesis  since  then  have  suggested 
many  variations  to  account  for  the  phenomena  associated 
with  mountain  building. 

A  typical  explanation  might  be  as  follows :  the  initial  slow 
development  of  the  currents  drags  down  the  crust  and  forms 
a  geosyncline  which  receives  sediments.  Continued  down- 
ward movement  results  in  heating  of  the  deeper  crustal  layers 
which  produces  partial  melting.  The  products  of  melting 
tend  to  rise  and  the  hot,  water-rich  solutions  in  particular 
move  upward  and  metamorphose  the  overlying  sediments. 
Acceleration  of  the  currents  results  in  compression  of  the  sedi- 
ments, their  severe  deformation,  and  formation  of  cleavage 
as  in  slates.  Then,  as  the  currents  slow  down,  the  thickened 
crustal  mass  is  no  longer  held  down  against  gravity  and  it  rises 
isostatically  to  form  a  new  mountain  range.  The  uplift  is 
accompanied  and  aided  by  the  buoyant  rise  of  granitic  masses 
produced  at  depth.  As  the  still  hot  mass  slowly  rises  through 
the  metamorphic  envelope,  it  causes  further  chemical  and 
structural  changes  in  the  rocks.  The  uplift  also  causes  the 
secondary  effects  of  sliding  and  slumping  as  described  earlier 
under  vertical  movements.  Erosion  attacks  the  rising  mass 
and  exposes  ever  deeper  levels  of  the  orogenic  belt  with  their 
differing  styles  of  deformation  and  metamorphic  effects. 

Deep  sea  trenches  and  their  accompanying  volcanic  arcs 
are  considered  by  many  earth  scientists  to  represent  the  loci 
of  present-day  orogenic  activity.       The  prevalent  earth- 

quake shocks  would  originate  by  the  release  of  stresses  gener- 
ated by  the  mantle  currents  which  are  moving  downward 
beneath  the  arcs  along  an  inclined  zone.  It  has  already  been 
mentioned  that  earthquake  wave  data  pose  a  difficulty  to  this 
underthrusting  concept.  Many  more  data  and  analyses,  how- 
ever, are  required  before  we  can  more  fully  understand  the 
complex  problem  of  deep  earthquake  movements  and  their 
relation  to  causal  mechanism.  The  characteristic  explosive 
andesitic  volcanism  can  be  explained  as  arising  by  the  fusion 
at  depth  of  crustal  material  and  sea  water  solutions  carried 
down  by  the  mantle  currents.     At  some  point  these  rise, 




Diagrammatic  vertical  sections  across  a  developing  orogenic  belt  assum- 
ing of  convection  currents  in  the  mantle  as  the  driving  mechanism: 

mixed  to  a  greater  or  lesser  extent  with  basalt  produced  by 
partial  fusion  of  the  mantle.  The  magma,  highly  charged 
with  gases,  makes  its  way  to  the  surface  and  forms  volcanoes. 
The  origin  of  andesitic  and  related  magma  types  is,  however, 
still  a  problem  with  no  generally  acceptable  solution.  A  source 
produced  by  the  partial  melting  of  sialic  crustal  material  with 
perhaps  additions  from  the  mande  is  one  very  plausible  ex- 
planation, so  that  the  above  mechanism  accounting  for  the 
volcanism  is  possible. 

The  question  of  whether  the  deep  sea  trenches  can  be  re- 
garded as  modern  examples  of  geosynclines  has  been  discussed 
earlier  (in  Part  2) .  Some  recent  interpretations  of  the  struc- 
ture of  trenches  have  indicated  little  thickening  of  the  crust 
and  an  origin  by  tensional  downfaulting  rather  than  by  com- 
pressional  buckling.  However,  seismic  surveys  indicate  a 
somewhat  thickened  oceanic  crust  which,  together  with  the 
large  deficiencies  of  gravity  over  the  trenches,  means  that 
they  are  not  isostatically  compensated.  Thus,  some  force 
must  be  holding  the  trench  areas  down;  otherwise  they  would 
rise  isostatically.  This  force  is  commonly  taken  to  be  down- 
turning  currents  in  the  mande  which  exert  a  drag  on  the  crust, 
pulling  it  downward.  Many  of  the  trenches  have  little  sedi- 
ment thickness  and  also  are  located  in  geographic  positions 
that  render  it  unlikely  that  large  thicknesses  of  geosynclinal 

Page  2    MAT 

proportions  could  accumulate.  Uplift  would  not  form  an 
orogenic  belt  but  a  ridge  on  the  ocean  floor.  Thus,  trenches 
must  be  converted  to  geosynclines  by  the  supply  of  large 
quantities  of  sediment  produced  by  the  erosion  of  mountains 
of  an  adjacent  continental  area.  A  possible  example  of  such 
an  occurrence  is  to  be  found  in  the  Coast  Ranges,  south  of 
San  Francisco.  Interpretations  of  the  metamorphic  rock  sug- 
gest that  sediment  accumulated  rapidly  in  a  sinking  trough 
with  oceanic  crustal  structure,  roughly  in  the  period  between 
100  and  120  million  years  ago.  Eventual  thickness  may  have 
been  nearly  twenty  miles.  Metamorphism  was  followed  by 
deformation  and  uplift  so  that  erosion  now  exposes  rocks  that 
were  once  very  deeply  buried  sediments  and  also  fragments  of 
former  oceanic  crust,  partially  altered  to  a  very  dense  type 
of  rock  of  basaltic  composition  called  eclogite.  Perhaps  even 
fragments  of  the  underlying  mantle  are  exposed. 

However,  other  orogenic  belts  have  evidence  that  the  geo- 
syncline  that  preceded  the  mountain  building  was  located  on 




fluenced  by  a  geologic  history  of  fragmentation  of  sialic  crust. 

The  reverse  side  of  the  coin  may  be  represented  by  the 
very  thick  sedimentary  accumulations  along  the  Gulf  Coast 
and  to  a  lesser  extent  off  the  eastern  seaboard.  The  former, 
particularly,  is  referred  to  as  a  modern  geosyncline.  How- 
ever, it  lacks  the  other  manifestations  normally  associated 
with  a  nascent  orogenic  belt, — earthquakes,  volcanism  and, 
in  fact,  any  evidence  of  crustal  instability  other  than  a  grad- 
ual downsinking.  Can  we  then  say  that  the  area  is  unlikely 
to  become  an  orogenic  belt  and  a  future  mountain  range? 

The  concept  of  downturning  mantle  currents  producing 
the  driving  force  of  orogeny,  as  described  earlier,  is  combined 
with  varying  rates  of  movements  to  form  a  single  orogenic 
cycle.  Varying  rates  of  movement  may  also  be  utilized  in  a 
different  way.  If  mantle  currents  cause  drag  movements  of 
the  crust  this  will  be  particularly  effective  on  the  deeper 
zones.  This  drag  may  thus  remove  material  from  the  base 
of  the  crust  at  zones  of  greatest  motion  and  deposit  iti  under 



GEOSYNCLINE     ^^'"" 

a)  geosyncline  developing;  granite  forming  and  volcanism  in  adjacent  belt;  b)  geosyncline  deforming;  c)  uplift,  metamorphism  and  granite  formation 
as  mantle  currents  wane. 

continental  crust  rather  than  oceanic,  though  perhaps  thin- 
ner than  average  since  rocks  that  may  have  come  from  the 
lower  crusts  and  upper  mantle  are  found  in  these  areas  also. 
Thus,  downwarping  may  affect  continental  crust.  The  loca- 
tion of  the  downsinking  portions  of  currents  has  been  thought 
to  be  influenced  by  the  crustal  discontinuity  of  continental 
borders  and  the  sites  of  many  present  trenches  support  this. 
Also  the  supply  of  large  volumes  of  sediment  is  linked  to  the 
proximity  of  continents  so  that  geosynclines  could  develop 
near  the  latter.  Combination  of  the  two  factors  produces  the 
elements  for  an  orogenic  belt;  this  combination  may  be  for- 
tuitous. In  this  respect  the  location  of  the  Bonin-Mariana 
and  Tonga  arcs  and  trenches  is  interesting.  They  do  not  oc- 
cur near  the  continent,  and  large  areas  of  oceanic  crust  in- 
tervene between  them  and  continental  sialic  crust.  The 
trenches  thus  seem  destined  not  to  produce  mountain  chains. 
The  andesitic  volcanoes  of  the  associated  island  arcs  are  a 
problem  to  the  theory  of  andesite  origin  by  refusion  of  down- 
dragged  sial  and  mixing  with  mantle  products  because  of 
their  distance  from  the  nearest  continental  mass.  It  is  pos- 
sible that  oceanic  crust  together  with  the  relatively  thin 
oceanic  sediments  carried  down  by  the  currents  may  suffice 
to  produce  andesite.  Also  the  southwest  Pacific  west  of  the 
Tonga  trench  is  a  complex  region  and  the  crust  may  be  in- 

areas  of  lesser  movement.  In  the  former  case  the  crust  is 
thinned;  in  the  latter  it  will  be  thickened  and  rise  isostatically. 
This  concept  may  explain  some  of  the  complex  structures  of 
the  American  Cordillera.  The  thin  block-faulted  crust  of 
Nevada  and  western  Utah  would  represent  the  thinned 
stretched  portion,  and  the  Colorado  Plateau  the  thickened 
uplifted  area.  The  extensive  volcanism  of  the  former  area 
during  the  last  fifty  million  years  might  also  reflect  fusion  of 
sial  and  its  ready  extrusion  through  a  thinned  fractured  crust. 
The  gigantic  granitic  intrusions  of  the  Sierra  Nevadas,  of 
Idaho,  and  the  Coast  Range  of  British  Columbia,  all  with 
ages  largely  between  80  and  110  million  years,  may  also  rep- 
resent rejuvenated  sial  transported  at  depth  from  the  west. 
The  Rocky  Moimtain  uplifts  represent  somewhat  of  a 
problem  because  of  the  small  amount  of  associated  granitic 
intrusions  and  metamorphism  so  typical  of  the  cores  of  clas- 
sical orogenic  belts.  Prior  to  the  uplifts  the  area  in  general 
was  a  shallow  sea  and  received  variable  but  moderate  amounts 
of  marine  sediments.  The  uplifts  must  be  related  to  deep 
crustal  and  sub-crustal  processes.  If  the  uplifts  are  related  to 
crustal  thickening  from  beneath  there  is  no  ready  explanation 
for  their  spotty  occurrence  with  intervening  basins  either  lag- 
ing  behind  or  actually  depressed.  It  would  seem  that  view- 
ing the  entire  Rocky  Mountain  area  as     {continued  on  page  8) 

MAT    Pages 



by  Donald  Collier,  Chief  Curator,  Anthropology 


LASSic  MAYA  CULTURE  was  notable  for  its  complex  re- 
ligion, elaborate  rituals  and  hieroglyphic  writing.  The  ancient 
Maya  achieved  an  extraordinary  knowledge  of  astronomy 
and  developed  a  remarkably  accurate  calendar.  They  pro- 
duced monumental  architecture,  and  created  a  rich  and  var- 
ied art.  The  sculptural  aspects  of  that  art  are  shown  in  the 
current  exhibition. 

On  display  in  the  Museum  from  May  7  through  June  27, 
the  exhibition  will  include  43  rubbings  from  stone  carvings 
as  well  as  a  loan  collection  of  Maya  sculpture.  The  rubbings, 
which  were  made  in  Mexico  and  Guatemala  by  Merle  Greene, 
range  in  size  from  2x3  feet  to  8  x  12  feet  and  are  remarkable 
for  their  high  technical  quality.  They  were  made  by  Mrs. 
Greene  over  a  period  of  three  years  in  the  field,  while  working 
as  an  artist  for  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  at  Tikal,  Guate- 
mala, and  for  Tulane  University  at  Dzibilchaltun  in  Yucatan. 

Good  rubbings  of  stone  carvings,  which  of  course  are  life- 
size,  have  advantages  over  photographs  because  they  clarify 
the  designs  by  eliminating  the  confusion  caused  by  color  vari- 
ations in  the  stone.  They  bring  out  the  low-relief  carving 
better  than  it  can  usually  be  seen  on  the  originals,  since  ideal 
conditions  of  oblique  lighting  seldom  exist  in  the  field.  And 
rubbings,  because  they  are  made  in  actual  contact  with  the 
carvings,  convey  a  feeling  for  the  texture  of  the  stone.  They 
are  therefore  valuable  both  for  an  appreciation  of  the  refine- 
ment and  grandeur  of  Maya  art,  and  for  systematic  study. 

The  carvings  shown  in  the  rubbings,  as  well  as  the  sculp- 
ture included  in  the  exhibition,  date  from  the  Classic  Period 
(a.d.  200-900)  and  the  Post-Classic  Period  (a.d.  900-1100). 
Most  of  the  material  dates  from  the  Late  Classic  (a.d.  600- 
900),  the  period  of  highest  development  of  Maya  art. 

The  rubbings  are  taken  from  low-relief  carvings  on  lime- 
stone monuments  called  stelae  erected  in  the  ceremonijd 
plazas  of  Maya  cities,  and  from  the  facades  and  interiors  of 
the  temples  that  surrounded  these  plazas. 

The  stelae  (singular,  stela),  which  form  the  most  numer- 
ous and  important  class  of  Maya  carvings,  are  tall  free-stand- 
ing stone  slabs  bearing  hieroglyphic  writing  and  carvings 
portraying  rulers,  priests  and  deities.  They  were  erected  in 
front  of  the  temples  to  mark  the  completion  of  time  cycles  in 
the  sacred  calendar,  or  to  celebrate  the  accession  of  a  new 
ruler,  whose  portrait  was  carved  on  the  monument.  The 
stelae  bear  hierglyphic  dates,  which  can  be  read,  and  other 
glyphs  which  have  not  yet  been  deciphered. 

For  many  years  archaeologists  have  been  trying  to  dis- 
cover the  origins  of  Classic  Maya  culture.  Most  of  the  visible 
remains  in  the  jungle  dated  from  the  Classic  period  and  such 
characteristic  Classic  traits  as  the  corbelled  vault  in  tombs 
and  stone  stelae  seemed  to  appear  almost  fully  developed  at 
the  beginning  of  the  period.  Earlier  remains  were  found  at 
some  of  the  lowland  Maya  sites,  but  these  were  insufficient  to 
explain  the  Classic  development.    This  situation  led  to  the 


^^^^^K^^^  S'i^^l 


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4  ^ 



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^    i  ■-,^<- .•>«...  •.•-.->'.   J 

Opposite  page,  above;  Rubbing  of  the  sarcophagus  lid 

in  the  tomb  of  the  Temple  of  the  Inscriptions  at  Palenque. 

In  the  center  a  royal  personage  reclines  on  a  throne. 

Opposite  page,  below:  Temple  of  the  Inscriptions  at 

Palenque,  Mexico.  The  base  of  the  pyramid  platform  held 

a  hidden  tomb  containing  a  carved  sarcophagus  and  offerings. 

Left:  Rubbing  from  a  stela  showing  a  high-ranking  captive. 

Above:  Mrs.  Greene  beside  the  largest  fragment  of  Stela  1 
at  Bonampak.    She  has  nearly  completed  the  rubbing. 

Cover:  Rubbing  of  a  relief  showing  two  ball  players;  the  taller 

Is  holding  up  a  human  heart  In  offering.  They  are  dressed 

in  the  heavy  belts  worn  In  the  ceremonial  ball  game, 

which  was  played  with  a  solid  rubber  ball. 

MAY    Page  5 

theory  that  Maya  culture  had  developed  in  the  Guatemalan 
highland  and  spread  to  the  lowland  at  the  beginning  of  the 
Classic  period.  Another  theory  was  that  some  basic  ideas  of 
Maya  culture  spread  from  the  Olmec  of  the  Gulf  Coast  of 
Mexico,  who  flourished  before  500  B.C. 

The  extensive  excavations  of  the  University  of  Pennsyl- 
vania over  the  past  ten  years  at  Tikal,  the  greatest  of  the 
Maya  cities,  have  changed  this  picture.  This  work  has  shown 
that  Tikal  was  first  occupied  by  500  b.c,  and  that  the  core 
of  the  city  had  grown  to  6.5  square  miles  by  200  B.C.  Many 
traits  leading  to  Classic  Maya  culture  developed  at  Tikal 
during  this  Pre-Classic  period  from  500  B.C.  to  a.d.  200. 
These  new  facts  suggest  that  Lowlands  Maya  culture  devel- 
oped in  situ  in  the  rain  forest.    It  did  not  grow  in  isolation, 

for  there  is  evidence  of  influence  from  other  Pre-Classic  cul- 
tures in  highland  Guatemala  and  in  Mexico,  which  resulted 
in  part  from  an  active  and  far  flung  network  of  trade.  But 
the  patterns  of  Classic  Maya  culture  were  already  foreshad- 
owed at  Tikal  well  before  the  beginning  of  the  Christian  era. 

Included  in  the  show  are  reliefs  from  Dzibilchaltun,  Chi- 
chen  Itza,  Uxmal,  Palenque,  Yaxchilan  and  Bonampak  in 
Mexico;  and  Tikal,  Uaxactun,  Piedras  Negras,  Kamilalijuyu, 
and  Santa  Lucia  Cozumalhuapa  in  Guatemala. 

The  exhibition  also  includes  Maya  sculpture  lent  by  the 
Museum  of  Primitive  Art  in  New  York,  the  Art  Institute  of 
Chicago,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Julian  Goldsmith,  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Milton  W.  Hitsch,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  D.  Daniel  Michel,  and 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Raymond  J.  Wielgus,  all  of  Chicago. 

Above:  Side  of  Stela  9  at  Tikal,  Guatemala,  bearing 

a  row  of  carved  glyphs. 

Right:  Rubbing  of  the  central  figure  on  the 

Tablet  of  the  Slaves,  Palenque. 

This  personage  wears  a  jade  necklace 

and  elaborate  ear  and  wrist  ornaments  of  jade. 

Paged    MAY 

Right:  Detail  of  the  central  figure  on  the  sarcophagus 
lid  shown  on  the  preceding  page.    This  person- 
age, who  has  the  idealized  Maya  profile,  is 
wearing  a  pendant  in  the  form  of  a  turtle. 

Center:  Three  temples  at  Palenque.    In  the  center 

is  the  Temple  of  the  Foliated  Cross. 

A  rubbing  of  the  carved  tablet 

in  this  temple  is  shown  at  the  bottom. 

Bottom:  Rubbing  of  the  Tablet  of  the  Foliated 

Cross  at  Palenque.    The  central  cross  is 

thought  to  represent  the  "tree  of  life"  and  to 

symbolize  the  sacred  corn  plant.    It  is  topped 

by  the  face  of  the  sun  god 

on  whose  head  stands  a  quetzal  bird. 

?/fS  'S^  •|'»-"  -r^      y 

!-;p  j.^'^  Jfsf^  f;S^  -  i3 

MAT    Page? 

mountains  {continued Jrom  p.  3)  the  site  of  downsinking  cur- 
rents that  virtually  stopped  some  80  to  100  milion  years  ago 
is  also  open  to  objections.  Furthermore,  much  of  the  West 
has  been  strongly  uplifted  within  the  last  10  million  years; 
this  late  vertical  movement  of  previously  uplifted  and  eroded 
mountain  chains  seems  common.  This  may  be  related  to 
renewed  mantle  current  activity  causing  more  crustal  thick- 
ening after  a  period  of  isostatic  adjustment. 

The  upper  mantle  beneath  much  of  the  western  United 
States  has  a  lower  than  average  seismic  wave  velocity  which 
is  interpreted  as  a  lower  than  average  density.  The  cause  of 
this  abnormality  is  not  known,  but  it  is  probable  that  it  is 
directly  related  to  the  orogenic  activity,  volcanism,  igneous 
intrusion,  and  uplift  which  has  affected  the  area,  particularly 
during  the  last  100  million  years  or  so.  One  explanation  is 
that  the  East  Pacific  Rise  follows  the  Gulf  of  California  and 
passes  beneath  the  western  portion  of  the  United  States  to 
reappear  in  the  Pacific  off  the  northern  California  coast. 
The  crest  of  the  Rise  is  characterized  by  anomalous  upper 

ducing  these  movements  were  operating  throughout  the  period 
when  the  crust  of  the  western  states  was  also  subjected  to  con- 
siderable orogeny,  faulting,  volcanism,  and  igneous  intrusion. 
As  yet,  we  have  insufficient  knowledge  to  permit  us  to  recon- 
cile all  these  crustal  events  into  a  reasonable  picture  of  the 
underlying  mantle  processes,  or  to  explain  the  cause  of 
the  anomalous  mantle.  Assuming  that  currents  in  the  mantle 
do  exist,  then  they  must  have  been  of  a  complex  nature  be- 
neath the  western  United  States.  It  may  be  that  more  than 
one  current  may  have  operated  simultaneously  (at  different 
levels?).  Or,  alternatively,  an  easterly  flowing  current  may 
have  originated  in  the  now  subsided  Darwin  Rise  of  the  cen- 
tral Pacific,  perhaps  was  responsible  for  the  fault  scarps  of  the 
eastern  Pacific  floor  off  California,  and  affected  the  crust  of 
the  western  regions.  This  rise  subsided  some  60  to  100  mil- 
lion years  ago,  producing  many  guyots  and  atolls  when  the 
rising  currents  ceased.  Northwest  currents  under  the  Pacific 
off  the  younger  East  Pacific  Rise  may  have  initiated  move- 
ments on  the  San  Andreas  fault  during  the  waning  stage  of 





FORMING        fW-o 






Possible  effects  oj  'thinning'  and  'thickening'  of  the  crust  from  below  by  the  action  of  currents  in  the  upper  mantle:  the  broken  line 
represents  the  earlier  base  of  the  crust,  the  lower  continuous  line  the  modified  base. 

mantle  similar  to  that  of  the  western  states.  In  addition,  the 
block-fault  moimtains  and  basins  of  Nevada  indicate  a  stretch- 
ing of  the  crust  in  an  east-west  direction  and  may  be  likened 
to  the  central  rift  zone  of  the  mid-Atlantic  ridge.  The  vast 
accumulation  of  geologically  recent  volcanic  products  in  Ne- 
vada seems  compositionally  to  have  been  derived  from  melted 
sial  rather  than  from  the  mantle.  The  heat  required  may  be 
correlated  with  the  high  heat  flow  of  rises,  and  the  faulting  of 
the  crust  provided  ample  opportunity  for  extrusion  to  the 

Against  this  view,  however,  is  the  evidence  provided  by 
the  great  African  rift  valleys  which  are,  on  strong  grounds, 
regarded  as  the  rift  zone  of  a  mantle  rise,  here  intersecting  a 
continent.  The  geological  structures  and  the  nature  of  the 
volcanism  are  quite  different  in  the  two  areas,  suggesting  that 
there  is  no  rise  under  the  western  United  States,  although 
some  discrepancies  could  possibly  be  explained  by  a  differ- 
ence in  the  age  of  the  two  features.  A  further  difficulty  is 
that  mantle  currents  should  flow  in  east-west  directions  from 
a  north-south  rise,  yet  the  crustal  movements  along  the  San 
Andreas  fault  zone  are  close  to  north-south.  There  is  geo- 
logical evidence  that  movements  along  the  San  Andreas  have 
been  immense,  amounting  to  some  350  miles  of  differential 
displacement  over  the  last  150  million  yeaa-s.    The  forces  pro- 

the  Darwin  Rise  currents. 

Convection  Currents  and  Continental  Drift. — Cur- 
rents in  the  mantle  have  also  been  suggested  as  the  driving 
force  behind  continental  drift.  Upwelling  currents  beneath 
a  continental  mass  and  their  sideways  flow  would  disrupt 
the  crust  and  move  the  fragments  apart.  The  oceanic  rises 
represent  the  lines  along  which  upwellings  are  believed  to  be 
taking  place  today;  the  mantle  currents  that  diverged  from 
them  in  the  past  are  considered  to  have  caused  the  drifting 
of  the  continents.  Paleomagnetic  and  other  geologic  evi- 
dence of  drift  refers  to  differential  movement  of  continents 
and  opening  of  the  Atlantic  and  Indian  oceans  during  the 
last  200  million  years,  and  explains  the  contrasts  between 
these  oceans  and  the  Pacific.  This  is  the  classical  drift  elab- 
orated by  Alfred  Wegener  in  1912.  Just  prior  to  this  conti- 
nental drift  had  been  advocated  as  the  cause  for  mountain 
building.  It  was  thought  that  the  movement  of  continental 
slabs  would  cause  compressional  buckling  along  the  leading 
edges,  such  as  the  mountains  of  western  North  and  South 
America  formed  by  westward  drift.  Additionally,  drift  of 
masses  toward  each  other  would  result  in  compressional  moun- 
tain building  of  the  opposed  borders  such  as  the  Alpine 
mountain  system  formed  as  Africa  moved  northward.  The 
forces  put  forward  to  explain  the  drift  were  proved  inadequate 

Pages    MAT 

and  as  a  result  the  idea  of  drift  was  generally  disregarded. 
Also,  as  a  mechanism  for  mountain  building  it  received  little 
support,  particularly  as  it  explained  only  the  geologically 
young  orogenic  belts  and  left  all  the  older  belts,  formed  prior 
to  the  continental  drifting,  without  explanation. 

It  is  pertinent  to  point  out  here  that  'polar  wandering'  is 
the  name  given  to  a  concept  not  of  displacement  of  the  rota- 
tional axis  but  to  displacement  of  the  whole  crust  relative  to 
the  axis.  This  is  conceived  as  possibly  due  to  slipping  of  the 
crust  and  part  of  the  upper  mantle  over  the  interior  or  else 
by  bodily  movement  of  the  entire  earth  over  its  axis.  Such 
adjustments  may  arise  from  instabilities  in  mass  distributions 
relative  to  the  earth's  rotation  which  are  produced  by  oro- 
genesis or  continental  drift.  It  differs  from  the  latter  in  that 
it  produces  no  relative  shift  between  continents.  Such  'polar 
wandering'  movements  may  have  taken  place  and  added 
their  effect  to  that  of  continental  drift  on  the  displacement 
of  the  ancient  poles  as  deduced  from  paleomagnetic  studies. 
At  present  there  is  no  satisfactory  way  of  separating  the  effects 
of  continental  drift  from  those  of  'polar  wandering.' 

The  continental  drift  hypothesis  now  receives  much  sup- 
port although  the  forces  causing  drift  are  still  controversial. 
Horizontal  mantle  currents  are  favored  by  many,  but  pro- 
ponents of  the  fundamental  importance  of  vertical  movements 
propose  that  the  horizontal  movements  are  caused  by  second- 
ary gravitational  sliding  from  primary  vertical  mass  move- 
ments and  uplifts  deep  within  the  mantle.  As  noted  earlier, 
some  earth  scientists  believe  earth  expansion  causes  separa- 
tion of  continental  masses.  Secondary  distortional  effects 
may  arise  from  other  forces,  for  example,  the  difference  be- 
tween the  equator  and  the  poles  in  speed  of  rotation  of  the 
crust  around  the  earth's  axis.  However,  the  amount  of  ex- 
pansion required  to  form  the  Atlantic  and  Indian  oceans  is 
too  great.  Mantle  currents  seem  to  be  the  best  available 
motive  force  for  drift. 

Compressional  structures  may  arise  by  distortional  move- 
ments of  one  crustal  segment  in  relation  to  another,  and  crustal 
thickening  may  result  when  one  crustal  block  rides  over  or 
under  another.  The  high  Tibetan  Plateau  may  represent 
such  a  double  thickness  of  crust.  However,  orogenesis,  with 
all  its  attendant  phenomena  of  deposition,  deformation,  meta- 
morphism,  volcanism,  and  igneous  intrusion,  is  generally  not 
so  directly  related  to  drift.  Rather,  it  depends  on  the  opera- 
tion of  mantle  currents  causing  specific  effects  other  than 
passive  transport  of  crustal  slabs;  for  example,  the  downturn- 
ing  zone  of  a  current  may  be  related  to  the  subsidence  of  a 
geosyncline  and  the  subsequent  deformation  of  its  sedimen- 
tary fill. 

Sources  of  Energy. — The  source  of  energy  driving  the 
proposed  mantle  currents  is  not  known.  Some  believe  that 
physical  and  chemical  changes  take  place  in  the  mantle  in 
the  earth's  gravitational  field  and  more  dense  and  less  dense 
fractions  are  produced  which  result  in  mass  movements — the 
denser  sinking,  the  lighter  rising.  The  more  generally  ac- 
cepted theory  is  that  the  currents  are  the  result  of  heat  pro- 
duction, which  gives  rise  to  excessive  heat  gradients,  which,  in 
turn,  cause  flow  of  inner  hot  material  toward  the  cooler  outer 
zones  and  the  return  of  cooler,  denser  material  to  the  interior. 



T  L  E 

Above :  Shows  continental  drift,  mid-ocean  ridges,  and  compressional 
orogenic  belts  resulting  from  convection  currents  in  the  mantle;  a)  ini- 
tial stage  of  currents  ascending  beneath  continent;  b)  mature  stage, 
continents  drifting  and  new  ocean  formed. 

Below:  Thickening  of  crust  by  underthrusting  of  one  continent  by 
another  under  the  influence  of  mantle  currents;  thickening  may  also 
be  caused  by  compression. 

Such  convectional  movements  can  be  likened  to  the  overturn 
of  the  syrup  during  the  making  of  preserves  or  to  the  move- 
ment of  air  masses  in  the  atmosphere  which  gives  us  our 
weather.  A  source  of  heat  in  the  mantle  is  the  decay  of  radio- 
active elements.  This  is  probably  inadequate  so  that  an 
additional  source  is  required.  It  is  conjectured  that  this  may 
be  related  to  the  growth  of  the  core,  a  process  which  would 
release  gravitational  energy  as  heat. 

Alternatively,  the  change  in  state  of  dense  metallic  core 
material  to  mantle  material,  as  discussed  earlier,  would  re- 
lease much  energy  as  heat  as  well  as  cause  a  volume  increase. 
In  this  respect  it  is  interesting  to  note  that,  based  on  their 
average  densities  and  absence  of  magnetic  fields,  neither  the 
moon  nor  Mars  seems  to  have  a  core  in  the  sense  that  the 
earth  does.  Their  surface  features,  revealed  to  us  in  more 
detail  than  ever  before  by  the  photographs  radioed  back  by 
the  Ranger  and  Mariner  space  vehicles,  are  quite  different 
from  those  of  earth.  Craters  and  other  features  seem  best 
explained  by  meteoritic  bombardment  and  a  form  of  vol- 

MAY    Page  9 

canism.  Mountain  building  similar  to  that  on  earth  is  absent. 
One  conclusion  is  that  there  are  probably  no  convection  cur- 
rents in  the  moon  or  Mars.  Radioactivity  produces  some 
internal  heating,  perhaps,  to  support  some  volcanism,  but 
these  two  bodies  may  be  cooling  now,  rather  than  warming 
up.  The  absence  of  oceans  and  the  virtual  absence  of  an 
atmosphere  on  the  moon  and  Mars  means  that  sedimentary 
depositional  processes,  as  we  know  them  on  the  earth,  and 
thus  the  development  of  geosynclines,  are  impossible  on  these 
bodies.  Venus  has  sufficient  mass  and  average  density  to 
have  a  core,  but  perhaps  not  to  have  an  inner  core  like  the 
earth  does.  The  absence  of  a  Venusian  magnetic  field  (as 
recorded  by  a  space  vehicle)  may  be  the  result  of  the  lack  of 
reactions  related  to  an  inner  core.  However,  the  core  of 
Venus  may  have  been,  and  may  still  be,  subject  to  changes 
like  the  earth's  outer  core,  and  the  energy  released  may  have 
produced  convection  currents,  with  the  result  that  the  surface 
of  this  planet  may  have  mountain  ranges  like  the  earth. 

It  is  still  only  conjecture  that  the  earth's  mantle  has  con- 
vection currents.  On  the  whole,  they  seem  to  be  the  best 
available  driving  force  for  both  orogenesis  and  horizontal  dis- 
placements of  the  crust.  One  serious  objection  that  has  been 
raised  against  the  currents  is  the  seismic  discontinuities  in 
the  mantle,  particularly  the  one  between  the  upper  and  lower 
mantle  at  a  depth  of  about  600  miles.  It  is  argued  that,  if 
change  of  chemical  composition  is  the  cause  of  the  discon- 
tinuity, the  preservation  of  the  discontinuity  is  a  barrier  to 
convection  currents,  as  these  would  cause  mixing.  Separate 
convection  systems  may  still  operate  above  and  below  the 
discontinuity  and,  while  the  former  may  be  large  enough  to 
cause  orogenesis,  it  seems  unlikely  they  would  be  on  a  large 
enough  scale  to  cause  continental  drift.  However,  if  the  dis- 
continuity is  produced  by  a  physical  change  of  mantle  mate- 
rial due  to  increasing  pressure,  then  the  currents  may  pass 
through  it.  The  movement  would  be  slow  enough  so  that  the 
material  could  change  as  it  is  carried  upward,  thus  preserv- 
ing the  seismic  discontinuity.  Possibly  these  physical  changes 
in  the  upper  mantle  may  be  related  to  the  origin  of  deep 
earthquake  shocks.  Assuming  that  currents  do  exist,  there 
are  many  problems  in  trying  to  work  out  their  present  form 
and  distribution  so  as  to  explain  all  the  crustal  features  of 
oceanic  rises,  trenches,  heat  flow,  volcanism,  earthquakes, 
and  horizontal  and  vertical  movements.  Some  of  these  phe- 
nomena may,  in  any  case,  have  only  an  indirect  relationship 

So  many  sources  were  used  for  the  writing  of  the  articles  on 
mountain  building  that  it  was  not  possible  to  refer  to  them 
in  the  limited  space  of  the  Bulletin.  Some  of  the  more  im- 
portant ones  were  written  by  the  following  authors: 

Beloussov,  V.  V.;  van  Bemmelen,  R.  W.;  Bucher,  W.  H.; 
Carey,  S.  W.;  Chadwick,  P.;  Dearnley,  R.;  Dietz,  R.  S.; 
Egyed,  L.;  Engel,  A.  E.  J.;  Fisher,  R.  L.  and  Hess,  H.  H.; 
Fitch,  F.J.  and  Miller.  J.  A.;  Gilluly,  J.;  Holmes,  A.;  Oro- 
wan,  C;  Lyttleton,  R.  A.;  Pakiser,  L.  C;  Ramberg,  H.; 
Scheidegger,  A.  E.;  Sutton,- J.;  Thompson,  G.  A.  and  Tal- 
wani,  M.;  Umbgrove,  J.  H.  F.;  Vening  Meinesz,  F.  A.; 
Wilson,  J.  T. 

(A  selected  bibliography  is  available  on  request  from  the 
author  of  the  articles.) 

to  mantle  currents,  e.g.,  volcanism  of  the  Central  Pacific  and 
isostatic  response  to  loading  or  unloading  of  the  crust. 


At  the  present  time,  then,  the  action  of  convection  cur- 
rents in  the  mantle,  driven  by  changes  in  the  interior  of  the 
earth  which  release  energy,  is  the  favored  mechanism  for 
mountain  building.  We  have  seen,  however,  that  the  opera- 
tion of  other  fundamental  forces  such  as  rotation  of  the  earth, 
gravity,  buoyancy,  isostasy  and  contraction  or  expansion  all 
influence  the  evolution  of  crustal  structures.  In  particular, 
the  secondary  gravitational  effects  produced  by  primary  ver- 
tical uplift  are  undoubtedly  important  in  the  development  of 
folding  and  thrusting  structures  that  were  formerly  explained 
by  tangential  pressures.  However,  it  seems  to  me  that  the 
complex  folding  and  metamorphism  exposed  in  what  were 
the  deep-seated  cores  of  old  orogenic  zones  require  primary 
compressional  forces  which  are  most  easily  derived  by  the 
action  of  convection  currents  in  the  upper  mantle.  Addi- 
tionally, evidence  of  large  horizontal  crustal  movements  and 
acceptance  of  continental  drift  demand  mantle  currents. 

The  source  of  energy  to  drive  the  currents  seems  to  de- 
pend on  something  more  than  radioactive  decay,  and  this 
may  be  evolutionary  change  deep  within  earth.  It  has  been 
suggested  that,  if  the  core  has  grown  throughout  the  earth's 
history,  its  changing  size  would  have  caused  periodic  funda- 
mental changes  of  the  main  mantle  convection  from  an  early 
single  circuit  or  cell  to  a  multi-celled  form.  The  change  in 
cell  number,  size,  and  distribution  may  initiate  continental 
drift  with  attendant  fragmentation,  if  currents  arise  below  a 
continent,  or  accretion  if  two  continents  are  driven  toward 
each  other.  This  may  have  occurred  several  times  since  the 
origin  of  the  earth  and  may  have  been  accompanied  by  great 
basaltic  outpourings,  such  as  flooded  parts  of  India,  Brazil, 
South  Africa,  Greenland,  Iceland,  etc.,  when  the  Atlantic 
and  Indian  Oceans  were  formed.  Such  events,  against  a 
background  of  slow  earth  contraction  or  expansion,  may  be 
responsible  for  the  major  cycles  of  orogenic  activity  discern- 
ible in  the  radioactive  dating  of  igneous  and  metamorphic 
rocks  throughout  the  world. 

Mountain  building  is  not  only  a  phenomenon  of  the  past 
but  is  actually  going  on  today.  The  beds  of  canals  built  some 
1700  years  ago  in  Persia  have  been  uplifted  (as  much  as  60 
feet  in  one  case)  so  that  water  would  now  no  longer  flow  in 
the  original  direction.  Metamorphism  is  probably  proceed- 
ing at  great  depths  beneath  some  of  the  youngest  folded  zones 
associated  with  volcanic  arcs. 

It  is  obvious  from  the  number  of  opposing  theories  that 
we  have  much  yet  to  learn  about  the  inner  workings  of  our 
planet,  its  past  history,  and  in  particular  about  mountain 
building.  We  still  do  not  have  a  satisfactory  synthesis  of  the 
causes  of  all  the  phenomena  connected  with  mountain  build- 
ing nor  do  we  fully  understand  the  mechanics  of  rock  defor- 
mation, the  origin  of  earthquakes,  and  the  development  of 
major  structures  such  as  rift  valleys.  However,  our  knowl- 
edge is  increasing  at  a  great  rate  and  it  is  certain  that  con- 
tinued geological  studies  in  the  field  and  laboratory  will  solve 
many  of  the  outstanding  problems.     (Continued  on  page  12) 

Page  10     MAT 


Author  Hy  Marx  holds  a 
male  basilisk  preparatory  to 
its  take-off  over  water's  surface. 

by  Hymen  Marx,  Associate  Curator,  Reptiles  and  Amphibians 

As  the  sun  slowly  set  into  the  west,  we 
set  out  to  observe  and  collect  the  basi- 
lisk. The  basilisk  is  a  fascinating  reptile, 
whose  claim  to  fame  is  its  ability  to  run 
over  the  surface  of  water.  Literally  run- 
ning on  its  hind  feet,  dinosaur-like,  it 
scampers  over  the  water  at  the  rapid 
rate  of  5  or  6  miles  (or  knots?)  per  hour. 
Whatever  the  rate  may  be,  it  is  a  sight 
to  behold !  It  is  always  thrilling  to  see  a 
large  male  basilisk  almost  three  feet  long, 
with  all  its  frills,  running  on  its  hind 
limbs  at  full  speed  on  the  surface.  For 
those  who  feel  that  nature  has  not 
equated  the  sexes,  sex  is  no  hindrance  as 
far  as  running  is  concerned.  The  females 
(and  young)  run  just  as  fast  as  the  males. 

As  part  of  may  recent  trip  to  observe 
Central  American  tropics,  I  observed 
and  measured  the  rate  of  speed  of  these 
lizards.  A  remarkably  appropriate  site 
to  study  tropical  environment  and  many 
of  its  component  units,  is  Barro  Colorado 
Island.  This  island  in  the  Canal  Zone 
is  a  research  station  of  the  Smithsonian 
Institution.  Here  many  scientists  of 
many  disciplines — environmental,  sys- 
tematic, behavioral,  experts  to  mention 
a  few — take  the  opportunity  to  study  all 

sorts  of  undisturbed  life.  At  this  very 
island  some  of  the  critical  pioneering  re- 
search took  place  because  men  had  ac- 
cess to  the  animals  and  plants  of  the  rain 
forest  for  relatively  long,  uninterrupted 
periods  of  time.  At  Barro  Colorado  Is- 
land primate  and  insect  behavioral  stud- 
ies, for  instance,  have  led  to  many  im- 
portant and  fundamental  discoveries. 
While  I  was  on  the  island  Dr.  T.  S. 
Schneirla  was  there  continuing  his  re- 
search on  the  behavior  of  army  ants. 
The  support  of  so  important  a  research 
center  as  Barro  Colorado  Island,  and  its 
like,  cannot  be  overemphasized  or  un- 

Anyway,  back  at  the  canoe,  resident 
zoologist  Dr.  A.  Stanley  Rand  and  I  set 
out  to  collect  live  basilisk.  The  best 
time  is  at  night  when  the  animals  are 
asleep  in  the  branches  of  trees  overhang- 
ing the  shore.  To  collect  live  basilisk 
during  the  day  is  nearly  impossible  be- 
cause of  their  striking  alertness.  They 
will  take  off  at  full  bipedal  gallop  over 
land  or  water  at  the  nearing  of  danger. 
And  we  were  the  "danger." 

We  set  out  in  our  canoe  at  dusk,  head 
lamps  and  collect-   (Continued  on  page  12) 

MAT    Page  11 




May  7  -June  27     Maya  Art,  Rubbings  from  Stoxe  Carvings 

Special  exhibition  of  43  ink  rubbings  made  from  Maya  reliefs  plus  a  loan  col- 
lection of  Maya  sculpture.    Hall  9  Gallery. 
May  21     Chicago  Area  Teachers'  Science  Association  Fair 

Students  from  Chicago  and  suburban  public,  private  and  parochial  schools 
exhibit  and  explain  prize-winning  science  projects.    Stanley  Field  Hall. 
May  23  -  June  20    Birds,  Be.asts  and  Mummery 

Display  of  drawings,  paintings,  and  sculpture  about  the  Museum  and  its  ex- 
hibits.   By  students  of  the  Junior  School  of  the  Art  Institute.    Stanley  Field  Hall. 
June  1  —June  30     16th  Annual  Amateur  Handcrafted  Gem  and  Jewelry 
Competitive  Exhibition 

The  Chicago  Lapidary  Club  shows  over  100  prize-winning  examples  of  cut 
gems,  jewelry  incorporating  polished  stones,  and  stone  and  polished  slab  col- 
lections.   Stanley  Field  Hall. 

Nature  Camera  Club  of  Chicago, 

May  10  at  :30  p.m. 
Illinois  Orchid  Society,  May  15  at  2:00  p.m. 
State  Microscopical  Society  of  Illinois. 

May  17  at  7:30  p.m. 
Chicago  Shell  Club,  May  22  at  2 :00  p.m. 

AQUATIC?  MARVEL  {continued from  page  11) 

ing  sacks  at  hand,  toward  a  shore  line  with  many  overhanging  trees.  We  paddled 
along  the  jungle's  edge  as  darkness  set  in;  the  beauty  of  the  overall  scenery  was 
breath-taking.  But  as  we  approached  the  overhanging  vegetation  we  were  diverted 
from  this  natural  beauty  by  our  search  for  sleeping  lizards  in  the  foliage.  The 
lizard  looks  very  much  like  its  surroundings :  the  long  and  slender  tail  has  brown 
and  tan  bands  and  hangs  limply  from  its  anchorage,  the  body.  We  often  grabbed 
vines  with  lichen  blotches  growing  on  them  which  made  them  look  like  the  tail 
bands  of  the  basilisk.  But  I  must  also  do  justice  to  the  camouflaging  adaptation 
of  the  rest  of  the  animal.  It  is  extremely  well  hidden,  looking  like  part  of  the 
branch  on  which  it  is  perched  and  sleeping. 

When  a  basilisk  was  spotted  we  slowly  paddled  or  drifted  close  to  the  lizard  and 
attempted  to  seize  it.  If  seizure  was  successful  the  only  problem  was  who  would 
get  hurt,  Stan  or  myself.  Certainly  not  the  lizard.  Its  bite  is  to  be  avoided,  for 
it  bites  hard  and  firm,  and  the  jaws  tend  not  to  let  go.  In  fact,  they  do  not  let  go. 
Who  gets  bitten,  depends  on  who  is  closest  to  the  perched  lizard  and,  consequently, 
has  the  privilege  of  seizing  the  animal.  But  blood  rarely  flowed  from  the  captor's 
finger  so  we  collected  a  good  many  samples  of  these  fascinating  reptiles. 

If  we  missed  the  basilisk  by  shaking  the  branches  or  by  an  inaccurate  swipe 
at  it,  the  animal  jumped  into  the  water — no,  not  into,  but  on  top  of  the  water — • 
and  speedily  sprinted  to  the  shore  or  some  distant  log.  A  fine  example  of  an  escape 
mechanism — bite,  jump,  and /or  run. 

This  opportunity  to  see  and  study  the  basilisk,  day  and  night,  in  its  natural 
habitat,  will  long  be  remembered.  And  to  have  so  adequate  a  place  to  do  our 
work  as  Barro  Colorado  Island  will  always  be  appreciated. 

mountains  {continued  from  page  10) 

Geoph)sical  research  into  the  nature  and  behavior  of  the  mantle  and  core  will 
refine  our  ideas  of  the  driving  forces  of  crustal  evolution.  Deep  drilling  in  the  con- 
tinental and  oceanic  crust  will  provide  us  with  samples  and  data  not  now  available. 
The  Mohole  project,  now  being  actively  worked  on,  to  drill  right  through  the 
crust  will  provide  us  with  samples  not  only  of  the  oceanic  crust  but  of  the  upper 
mantie,  below  the  Moho  discontinuity.  Experimental  reproduction  of  the  effect 
of  stresses  on  replicas  of  crustal  and  sub-crustal  materials  will  be  an  important  addi- 
tional source  of  knowledge.  Exploration  of  the  moon  and  near  planets  will  also 
enable  us  to  compare  their  evolution  with  that  of  the  earth  and  perhaps  help  us 
to  arrive  at  a  more  fundamental  understanding  of  the  inner  workings  of  the  earth. 
In  all  these  ways  we  shall  gradually  solve  some,  at  least,  of  the  problems  of  our 
earth's  history  and  the  evolution  of  its  crust. 

Page  12    MAT 



Roosevelt  Rd.  &  Lake  Shore  Drive 
Chicago,  Illinois  6060S 

Founded  by  Marshall  Field,  1893 


Lester  Armour 
Harry  0.  Bercher 
William  McCormick  Blair 
Bowen  Blair 
Walter  J.  Cummings 
Joseph  A^.  Field 
Paul  W.  Goodrich 
Clifford  C.  Gregg 
Samuel  Insull,  Jr. 
Henry  P.  Isham 
Hughston  M.  McBain 
Remick  McDowell 
J.  Roscoe  Miller 
William  H.  Mitchell 
James  L.  Palmer 
John  T.  Pirie,  Jr. 
John  Shedd  Reed 
John  G.  Searle 
John  M.  Simpson 
Edward  Byron  Smith 
Louis  Ware 
E.  Leland  Webber 
J.  Howard  Wood 


William  V.  Kahler 


James  L.  Palmer,  President 

Clifford  C.  Gregg,  First  Vice-President 

Joseph  N.  Field,  Second  Vice-President 

Bowen  Blair,  Third  Vice-President 

Edward  Byron  Smith, 

Treasurer  and  Assistant  Secretary 

E.  Leland  Webber,  Secretary 


E.  Leland  Webber 


Donald  Collier, 

Department  of  Anthropology 

Louis  0.  Williams, 

Department  of  Botany 

Rainer  ^angerl. 

Department  of  Geology 

Austin  L.  Rand, 

Department  of  Zoology 


Edward  G.  J\'ash,  Managing  Editor 

Beatrice  Paul, 

Kathleen  Wolff, 

Associate  Editors 

Volume  37,  Number  6    June,  1966 


Go  To  The  Ant 

by  John   Clark,   Curator,   Sedimentary  Petrology 

VVe  know  very  much  less  about  modern 
mammal  communities  than  one  might 
suppose.  Actually,  no  one  has  ever  de- 
termined how  to  take  a  complete  census 
of  the  mammals  of  one  community.  Sup- 
pose, for  instance,  that  we  wanted  to  count 
all  the  animals  within  the  home  range  of 
a  single  rhinoceros.  He  might  roam  over 
two  square  miles,  but  a  mere  hundred 
yards  of  his  range  would  overlap  that  of 
an  even  wider-ranging  giraffe.  Would 
you  then  count  the  giraffe?  And  would 
you  count  all  the  generations  of  mice  and 
rabbits  who  shared  the  rhino's  home  acres 
diiring  his  much  longer  life  span? 

However,  museum  collections  of  fos- 
sil vertebrates  reveal  a  problem  be- 
cause proportions  differ  from   those  of 

of  small  pebbles,  clay  pellets,  and  dried 
sage  leaves,  knows  why  we  overlook  most 
of  the  small  teeth. 

Many  years  ago,  paleontologists  no- 
ticed that  humans  may  have  trouble 
finding  small  fossil  teeth,  but  ants  do 
not.*  The  ants  pick  up  any  pebbles, 
including  fossil  teeth  and  bones,  small 
enough  for  them  to  move,  and  place 
them  on  their  nest  or  ant-hill.  By  scrap- 
ing off  this  protective  layer  of  grit  and 
sorting  it,  one  gets  a  sample  of  all  the 
small  objects  within  about  fifty  yards  of 
the  ant-hill.  Fine  collections  have  been 
made  with  the  unwilling  cooperation  of 
the  ants.  It  has  always  been  assumed 
that  the  ants  would  pick  things  up  at 
random,  giving  us  a  fair  sample  of  every- 

<  With  these  concretions 

the  ants  chose 
these  selenite  crystals.  ► 

•«  With  this 
round  squirrel  tooth  available 

would  the  ants  prefer  this 
long  rabbit  tooth?  ► 


actual  mammal  communities.  Usually  a 
collection  has  more  animals  cat-size  and 
larger  than  it  has  rat-size  and  smaller. 
Why?  We  know  that  small  bones  are  pre- 
served just  as  readily  as  large  ones,  so  only 
one  explanation  is  possible.  The  small 
bones  are  present,  but  collectors  aren't 
finding  them.  Anyone  who  has  crawled 
over  a  Wyoming  badland  flat  on  a  blis- 
tering summer  day,  with  gnats  biting  his 
ears  and  sweat  in  his  eyes,  trying  to  find 
fossil  mouse  teeth  among  a  surface  rubble 

thing.    But  last  summer  I  began  to  won- 
der about  ants. 

One  day  in  South  Dakota,  my  assist- 
ant and  I  were  walking  across  a  creamy- 
white  gravel  flat  when  we  noticed  a 
bright  pink  ant-hill  rising  from  it.  We 
looked  closer,  and  found  that  over  half 
of  the  grains  of  the  ant-hill  were  small 
garnets !  I  hurried  over  to  a  fresh  gravel 
exposure  and  scooped  up  a  heap  of  ant- 
sized  grains.  About  one  in  a  hundred 
was  a  garnet.     The  ants  had  certainly 

shown  a  marked  preference  for  garnets. 
But  why  did  they  like  them?  Did  they 
like  the  color,  or  the  heavy  weight,  or 
the  almost-round  shape,  or  the  surface 

A  few  days  later  we  were  prospecting 
over  hills  of  bare,  black  shale.  A  quarter- 
mile  away,  we  saw  two  strange  masses 
glistening  in  the  sun  like  piles  of  broken 
glass.  When  we  approached  them,  we 
found  ant-hills  again.  This  time  the 
ants  had  chosen  glassy,  lath-shaped  crys- 
tals of  selenite  gypsum  three-fourths  of 
an  inch  long,  as  big  as  they  could  carry. 
Plenty  of  tiny  gray  or  brown  limy  nod- 
ules, almost  round  and  much  more  con- 
veniently sized,  were  equally  available 
but  almost  unused.  Once  more,  were 
the  ants  interested  in  color,  or  size,  or 
shape,  or  weight? 

Whatever  may  be  an  ant's  basis  for 
selection,  it  is  apparent  that  he  has  one. 
He  has  very  definite  preferences,  and 
doesn't  simply  pick  up  grains  at  random. 

We  can  probably  trust  the  ants  to  give 
us  a  fair  qualitative  sample  of  whatever 
small  teeth  lie  near  their  nests,  because 
their  bias  is  not  absolute.  They  do  pick 
up  some  of  the  particles  which  are  less 
preferred.  But  suppose  that  an  ant  pre- 
fers a  lath-shaped  selenite  crystal,  like 
the  one  in  the  illustration,  to  a  roundish 
calcite  nodule.  Would  he  then  also  pre- 
fer a  lath-shaped  fossil  rabbit  tooth,  like 
the  one  shown,  to  a  roundish  fossil  squir- 
rel tooth?    No  one  knows  except  the  ant. 

We  cannot,  therefore,  trust  the  ants  to 
give  us  a  numerically  valid  sample  of  a 
fossil  small-animal  population.  Before 
we  can  use  the  ant-hill  collection  statis- 
tically, we  must  go  to  the  ant,  consider 
his  ways,  evaluate  his  biases,  and  respect 
his  prejudices.  But  how  in  the  world 
does  one  commune  with  an  ant? 

•Sec  "Ant  Hill  Colony  Assists  Fossil  Collectors  in  Wyoming,"  by  W.  D.  Turnbull,  in  the  Bulletin,  September,  1959  (vol.  30,  no.  9). 

Page  2     JUNE 

by  Alan  Solent,  Curator,  Lower  Invertebrates 

Above:    A  watch  glass  holds  the  thousands 
of  snails  culled  from  one  bag  of  dirt. 

Sacks  of  Exotic  Dirt 

In  recent  years  the  moUusk  collection  at  Field  Museum 
of  Natural  History  has  grown  eleven-fold,  from  145,000  to 
1,600,000  specimens.  This  process  was  marked  by  a  flood  of 
packages  and  cartons  which  have  variously  floored,  awed, 
disgusted  or  delighted  a  series  of  part-time  volunteers  and 
student  helpers.  Even  the  U.  S.  Customs  has  become  accus- 
tomed to  the  arrival  of  odoriferous  boxes  containing  recently 
dead  snails  from  distant  lands.  Personal  notes  from  plant 
and  animal  quarantine  inspectors  are  now  tucked  into  the 
opened  boxes,  replacing  the  previous  telephone  summonses 
to  O'Hare  Field. 

The  enthusiasm  of  Dr.  Fritz  Haas  and  myself  over  an 
Indonesian  shipment  of  limp,  slime-coated  slugs  in  discolored 
alcohol,  or  a  very  ripe  box  of  obviously  recently  deceased 
snails  from  Colombia  invariably  means  more  work  for  our 
helpers.  Each  new  shipment  requires  sorting,  housing,  label- 
ing, cataloging  and  storing  of  the  identified  shells  in  the  main 
collection.  Hence  the  arrival  early  in  1964  of  a  small  box 
from  North  Borneo  provoked  no  special  notice,  until  the  con- 
tents were  revealed  as  several  bags  of  dirt. 

Two  years  and  many  student  assistants  later,  most  of  the 
dirt  has  been  sifted  and  sorted  into  two  piles:  a)  thousands 
of  tiny  snails,  and  b)  just  plain  dirt.    Most  of  the  specimens 

JUNE    Pages 

from  a  single  bag  can  be  held  in  a  watch  glass,  since  the  adult 
shells  are  only  one  to  three  millimeters  in  size.  Actual  speci- 
mens are  dwarfed  by  a  penny  and  seem  inconsequential,  but 
are  fantastically  varied  in  shape  and  sculpture.  They  are 
part  of  probably  the  richest  and  most  varied  land  snail  fauna 
existing  today. 

Throughout  Southeast  Asia  and  some  parts  of  Indonesia, 
isolated  limestone  hills  rise  from  floodplains  or  rolling  regions 
of  non-calcareous  rocks.  Away  from  the  limestone,  snails  are 
scarce,  but  at  the  base  of  the  limestone  hills,  snails  are  every- 
where. Restricted  as  they  are  to  the  hills  by  their  need  for 
calcium,  a  multitude  of  species  and  races  have  evolved.  Only 
now  are  they  beginning  to  be  recognized  and  described  by 

The  first  scattered  individuals  were  collected  in  the  1860's, 

■4  Dr.  A.J.  Berry's  drawing 
of  Opislhosloma  crawling. 

Gyliotrachela  depressispira 
photographed  on  a  milli- 
meter ruler.   T 

but  until  M.  W.  F.  Tweedie  began  systematically  to  explore 
the  limestone  hills  of  Malaya,  we  had  no  idea  of  the  fantastic 
variety  and  abundance  of  these  species.  Quite  soon  a  simple 
collecting  technique  was  developed:  Find  a  limestone  hill. 
Walk  around  part  of  it  until  you  see  an  area  of  exposed  lime- 
stone blocks.  Hunt  for  accumulated  debris  at  the  base  of  the 
exposed  blocks.  A  quick  look  at  a  handful  of  dirt  tells 
whether  the  minute  empty  shells  are  present.  If  they  are, 
bag  a  quantity  of  the  dirt,  dry  it,  and  send  it  off  for  sorting. 
One  bag  is  enough  to  keep  a  student  busy  at  a  microscope 
for  many  days ! 

After  Tweedie  had  done  the  initial  exploration  and  col- 
lecting, Mrs.  W.  S.  S.  van  Benthem-Jutting  van  der  Feen  in 
Amsterdam  studied  and  described  the  many  species.  Illus- 
trations of  several  species  from  her  technical  reports  are  shown 
on  the  preceding  page.    The  first  stage  in  study,  learning 

of  their  presence  and  that  they  are  usually  confined  to  a 
single  hill,  was  soon  accomplished.  Then  it  was  possible  to 
investigate  matters  more  biologically  interesting.  Bagged 
dead  shells  tell  little  about  a  species.  Where  do  they  live  on 
the  hills?  How  long  do  they  live?  What  do  they  feed  on? 
Innumerable  questions  are  possible. 

Only  recently  have  any  answers  been  found.  Dr.  A.  J. 
Berry  of  the  University  of  Malaya  has  spent  the  last  several 
years  studying  the  ecology  and  life  history  of  several  species 
found  on  Bukit  Chintamani,  a  small  hill  near  Bentong,  Pa- 
hang,  Malaysia.  Comments  here  are  restricted  to  two  minute 
genera — Opisthostoma  with  its  fine  ribs  and  totally  reversed 
aperture  and  Gyliotrachela  with  its  triangular  form  and  trum- 
pet-shaped aperture.  Both  are  less  than  one-eighth  inch  in 
size  and  very  difficult  to  spot  unless  you  know  where  to  look. 
But  on  nearly  bare  limestone  faces  with  only  a  scattering  of 
fine  mosses  and  lichens,  usually  in  a  shaded  spot,  these  snails 
are  almost  incredibly  abundant.  Opisthostoma  will  be  found 
among  the  moss  filaments,  while  Gyliotrachela  is  usually  on  the 
bare  rock  surface  where  lichens  occur  only  in  scattered  masses. 
Dr.  Berry's  picture  (below,  left)  of  Gyliotrachela  depressispira  on 
a  millimeter  ruler  shows  the  typical  position  of  the  resting 
snail  shell.  When  young,  the  animal  crawls  in  a  normal 
snail-like  position,  but  the  peculiar  last  growth  stages  turn 
the  shell  upside  down. 

Opisthostoma  can  only  be  described  as  growing  wildly. 
Species  of  Opisthostoma  are  now  known  to  grow  by  adding  a 
stretch  of  shell  and  one  rib  each  day,  reaching  adult  size  in 
1 1 0-1 24  days.  The  peculiar  upward  turning  of  the  last  whorl 
happens  within  the  last  1 5-23  days  of  growth.  Photographs 
of  the  Opisthostoma  are  almost  impossible  to  get.  The  drawing 
of  Opisthostoma  crawling  was  made  by  Dr.  Berry. 

While  Malaya  has  been  moderately  well  collected,  other 
parts  of  Southeast  Asia  and  Borneo  represent  almost  totally 
unknown  areas  in  terms  of  the  land  snails.  Cambodia  and 
Viet  Nam,  Sarawak  and  Sabah,  Indonesian  Borneo  and  parts 
of  Thailand,  all  have  areas  with  geology  that  is  similar  to  the 
Malayan  limestone  hill  country.  To  date  we  have  only  tan- 
talizing fragments  of  collections  from  a  very  few  hills  in  these 
regions.  Hence  the  chance  to  obtain  collections  (i.e.,  bags 
of  dirt)  from  hills  in  Sabah  was  eagerly  seized  upon  by  the 
scientists  in  the  Division  of  Lower  Invertebrates.  Although 
the  reaction  of  the  dirt  sorters  has  not  been  recorded,  it  un- 
doubtedly carried  a  lower  level  of  enthusiasm. 

While  dirt  and  snails  are  now  separated,  the  snails  still 
have  to  be  sorted  into  species,  studied,  and,  if  they  prove  to 
be  new  to  science,  named  and  described.  Even  then,  only 
parts  of  a  few  more  hills  will  have  been  sampled,  and  crudely 
at  that.  Currently  my  Bornean  "dirt-bagger"  has  moved  to 
Malaya.  We  have  no  "dirt-baggers"  in  Viet  Nam  or  the 
other  areas,  and  would  welcome  such  workers. 

Even  with  the  active  cooperation  of  "dirt-baggers"  and 
"dirt-sorters,"  it  will  take  many  bags  of  dirt  and  hundreds 
of  sorting  hours  at  many  museums  before  even  the  prelim- 
inary survey  of  what  lives  where  will  be  completed.  By  ac- 
cumulating material  from  these  poorly-known  areas  for  study 
by  scientists.  Field  Museum  of  Natural  History  is  making  an 
important  contribution  to  surveying  the  world's  snail  fauna. 

Page  4    JUNE 


Increasing  Museum  activity  climaxed  by  the  preview  of  Maya  rubbings 
brought  out  a  record  attendance  of  3,000  on  May  6.  Upper  left,  Brenda 
Harter  and  Herbert  Quist  admire  herbarium  ferns.  Lower  left,  youngest 
member,  six-month-old  John  Erwood,  Jr.,  sleeps.  Below.  Darlene  and 
Herbert  Kofink  and  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  Faurot  view  rubbing  of  Maya 
sarcophagus  lid  from  Palenque,  Mexico. 

Taxidermist  Carl  Cotton  answers  questions,  upper  left,  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Herbert  Barsy,  about 
iguanas.  Upper  right.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Albert  S.  Lincoln  and  son  Steven,  join  hundreds  around 
punchbowls.  Crab-eating  monkey,  below  left,  is  pointed  out  by  Charles  Schwartz  to  son  Ned. 
Below  right.  Dr.  William  Berger  chats  after  his  lecture  with  Thomas  Kneebone  and  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Torkel  Korling,  while  at  right,  Barbara  Hutchins  contemplates  an  orang. 

JUNE    Pages 

Putting  together  the  pieces 

by  Paul  Martin,  Chief  Curator  Emeritus,  Antiiropology 

ARCHAEOLOGISTS  Study  the  behavior — that  is,  the  customs 
and  manners — of  peoples  who  Hved  long  ago.  The 
terms  customs  and  manners  cover  a  variety  of  items,  such  as 
ceremonies,  trade,  social  life,  ways  of  doing  things,  fashions. 
By  extension,  these  tenns  have  come  to  mean  house  types, 
village  layouts,  kinds  of  pottery,  varieties  of  food,  kinds  of 
stone  and  bone  tools,  methods  of  weaving  and  basket-making. 
Most  of  these  particulars  may  be  grouped  under  three  broad 
headings:  technological  (ways  of  coping  with  one's  environ- 
ment); sociological  (ways  in  which  men  group  themselves 
with  one  another  for  dealings  with  one  another);  and  ideo- 
logical (modes  of  thinking,  and  hence  ceremony,  religion, 
philosophy) . 

In  other  words,  archaeologists  try  to  reconstruct  as  much 
as  possible  of  the  total  life  ways  of  a  particular  people — people 
who  lived  perhaps  hundreds  of  years  ago  or  even  tens  of  thou- 
sands of  years  ago.  In  order  to  establish  a  correct  sequence 
of  events  they  must  have  a  clear  idea  of  when  a  people  (site 
or  town)  flourished.  Chronology,  then,  is  an  important  ad- 
junct of  archaeology. 

This  is  a  large  order  and  archeologists  often  find  it  diffi- 
cult to  interpret  the  results  of  their  excavations.  On  the 
whole,  a  modest  success  can  be  claimed  for  their  efforts. 

A  generation  ago,  American  archaeologists  were  concerned 
about  the  origin  of  the  American  Indians  (Asia);  how  long 
ago  they  moved  into  the  New  World  (about  10,000-40,000 
years  ago);  and  how  they  got  here  (probably  on  foot  via  a 
land  bridge  connecting  Siberia  and  Alaska).  These  are  merely 
questions  of  "where"  and  "when." 

Building  on  the  solutions  to  these  basic  questions,  we  pro- 
gress to  further  queries  such  as  "how"  and  "why."  In  other 
words,  now  that  we  know  so  much  about  the  past  history  of 
the  Indians,  particularly  in  the  American  Southwest,  we  can 
proceed  to  more  delicate  and  subtle  questions,  such  as  why 
the  Indians  of  the  Southwest  made  and  used  ceramic  con- 
tainers while  their  California  cousins  did  not?  or,  why  did  the 
Indians  abandon  large  parts  of  the  Southwest  after  a.d.  1200? 
or,  why  did  the  Pueblo  Indians  adopt  a  social  organization 
which  reckons  descent  through  the  mother-line,  requiring  a 
husband  to  make  his  home  with  his  mother-in-law? 

We  may  not  now  be  able  to  answer  these  questions;  but 
unless  we  ask  them  we  shall  certainly  never  arrive  at  answers. 

I  shall  not  discuss  here  the  technical  aspects  of  recovering 
cultural  debris.    Careful  sampling,  plus  painstaking  analysis 

of  all  materials  found  are  absolute  prerequisites.  The  mate- 
rial recovered  may  include  tools  of  stone  and  bone,  whole  and 
broken  pottery  vessels,  remains  of  houses  and  fire-pits,  milling 
stones,  unworked  animal  bones,  charcoal  and  wooden  roof 
beams,  seeds  and  food  remains,  basketry  and  matting,  and 
samples  of  dirt  from  floors  of  rooms,  from  fire-pits,  and  from 

We  use  charcoal  or  roof  beams  for  extracting  tree-ring  or 
radio-carbon  dates.  Samples  of  dirt  are  processed  to  obtain 
pollen  which  may  have  been  preserved  for  millions  of  years. 
From  that  we  can  make  firm  statements  about  past  climates 
and  plant  life  and  about  foods  gathered  and  eaten.  Animal 
bones  will  tell  us  what  mammals  were  hunted  for  food. 

Let  me  cite  a  few  examples  of  how  all  these  miscellaneous 
facts  were  combined  to  reconstitute  the  life  ways — the  char- 
acteristics of  the  social  system  as  well  as  the  technological 
aspects  of  the  culture  of  one  village.  The  village  is  located 
near  a  now  dry  stream  in  eastern  Arizona  and  bears  the  name 
of  Broken  K  Pueblo.  Broken  K  is  the  brand  mark  of  Mr. 
James  Carter,  who  owns  the  ranch  on  which  we  found  the 
site.  Broken  K  Pueblo  is  located  in  Hay  Hollow  Valley,  a 
small  valley  which  was  drained  by  a  minor  tributary  of  the 
Little  Colorado  River,  Hay  Hollow  Wash. 

The  pueblo  consisted  of  about  100  one-story  contiguous 
rooms  built  around  a  hollow  square — a  plaza.  Some  rooms 
(small  and  featureless)  were  for  food  storage;  other  larger  ones 
containing  fire-pits,  fresh  air  vents,  built-in  corn-grinding  ap- 
paratus and  work-pits  were  living  quarters.  Some  parts  of 
the  pueblo  antedate  others.  When  girls  married,  their  hus- 
bands joined  the  girls'  families,  and  inore  contiguous  rooms 
were  added.  Women  made  the  pottery,  the  baskets  and  the 
milling  stones,  plastered  the  rooms,  prepared  the  meals  and 
probably  tanned  the  hides.  Men  built  the  houses,  wove  tex- 
tiles of  cotton,  hair  or  fur,  planted  and  harvested  the  corn, 
beans  and  squash.  They  made  the  projectile  points  and  other 
stone  tools,  and  performed  religious  ceremonies  in  specially 
built  rooms  called  kivas. 

The  pueblo  was  founded  about  a.d.  1 1 50  at  which  time 
large  animals  were  abundant  (antelope,  deer,  mountain 
sheep)  and  rainfall  was  adequate  for  producing  crops.  About 
A.D.  1250,  a  slight  shift  took  place  in  the  pattern  and  amount 
of  snow  and  rainfall.  In  other  words,  the  climate  worsened 
for  the  growing  and  harvesting  of  crops.  The  population  de- 
clined somewhat,  large  quantities  of  seed  corn  had  to  be  set 

Page  6    JUNE 

Right:  An  aerial  view  of  the  Broken  K  site. 
Above:  A  detailed  floor  plan  of  the  same  site. 
Shaded  rooms  are  not  excavated.  The  site 
was  discovered  by  Dr.  William  A.  Longacre 
during  a  survey  in  1961-62  and  excavated  in 
the  summer  of  1963  by  the  Southwestern 
Archaeological  Expedition  of  Field  Museum. 
The  area  around  the  pueblo  is  a  gently  rolling 
plateau,  badly  eroded  by  over-grazing  and 
high  winds;  it  is  cut  by  numerous  arroyos,  dry 
most  of  the  time,  swift-running  and  destruc- 
tive after  rains.  Sparse  grass,  amarinth  and 
stunted  junipers  are  the  most  common  plants. 
The  area  is  bleak,  dreary  and  uninviting. 

aside  for  use  during  and  after  bad  years.  Quantities  of  wild 
food-plants  were  gathered  and  stored  (walnuts,  pinon  nuts, 
seeds,  roots,  bulbs)  and  more  cooperation  and  integration 
were  necessary  to  keep  the  townspeople  together.  Some  of 
the  rooms  were  abandoned  toward  the  end  of  the  life  of  the 
village  although  no  one  wing  or  section  was  forsaken. 

Ceremonial  life  may  have  become  communal  instead  of 
being  left  in  the  hands  of  the  males,  since  the  kivas  seemed  to 
have  been  left  untended.  The  plaza  may  have  been  used  for 
highly  sanctified  rain-making  rites  and  other  ceremonies  that 
may  have  become  frantic  because  of  desperation. 

Eventually,  the  struggle  became  too  much  and  the  elders 
decided,  about  a.d.  1385,  to  abandon  their  village.    It  was 

the  last  town  to  have  been  occupied  in  the  whole  valley.  The 
people  may  have  moved  about  15  miles  westward  and 
merged  with  another  town  more  fortunately  located  on  a 
still  running  stream.  Q 

Broken  K  Pueblo  was  the  climax  of  1 8  centuries  or  more 
of  cultural  development  in  Hay  Hollow  Valley.  For  a  num- 
ber of  years  we  have  been  piecing  together  this  development. 
Our  earliest  site  (County  Road)  dates  to  at  least  500  B.C.  The 
Carter  Ranch  Pueblo  lasted  roughly  from  950  to  1150  a.d. 
and  Broken  K  until  near  the  end  of  the  fourteenth  century. 
By  concentrating  our  efforts  in  a  small  geographic  area,  over 
a  very  great  span  of  time,  we  hope  to  achieve  a  sense  of  both 
the  continuity  and  the  change  in  social  history. 

JUNE    Page  7 


A  $9,000  GRANT  has  been  awarded  the  Museum  by  the  Ernest  G.  Shinner  Foundation  to 
provide  college  students  interested  in  the  natural  sciences  with  positions  in  the  Museum's 
scientific  departments  during  the  summer  vacation.  The  grant  will  give  students  working 
toward  degrees  in  biology,  geology  or  anthropology  a  imique  opportunity  to  broaden  their 
knowledge  of  their  field  of  study  and  to  learn  first-hand  the  operations  of  a  great  research 
center.  The  museum  experience  will  also  allow  the  students  to  assess  career  interests  in 
the  sciences  at  a  particularly  vital  stage  in  their  education. 

This  grant  continues  a  long-standing  Museum  program  of  student  assistance,  a  program 
that  has  seen  many  of  its  participants  go  on  to  significant  roles  in  scientific  research. 


Appointment  of  Phil  Clark,  formerly  of  the  New  York  Botan- 
ical Garden,  as  public  relations  counsel  of  the  Field  Museum  of 
Natural  History  has  been  announced  by  E.  Leland  Webber, 
director  of  the  Museum. 

Mr.  Clark  headed  the  public  relations  and  membership  de- 
partments of  the  New  York  Botanical  Garden  for  the  past  four 
years  and  planned  and  directed  a  fall,  1965,  tour  of  Guatemala 
as  a  membership  activity  for  that  institution. 

Before  going  to  New  York,  Mr.  Clark  was  for  ten  years  garden 
editor  and  Sunday  editor  of  The  News,  Mexico's  English  language 
daily  newspaper,  and  resided  in  Mexico.  He  continues  to  write 
the  garden  page  of  The  News  and  his  articles  on  gardening  and  Mexican  plants  have  ap- 
peared in  numerous  United  States,  British  and  Mexican  publications.  He  has  also  served 
as  the  editor  of  Horticulture,  as  garden  editor  of  Living  for  Toung  Homemakers,  and  as  a  feature 
writer  for  the  San  Antonio  Express  and  the  West  Central  Minnesota  Daily  Tribune.  Mr.  Clark 
is  a  native  of  St.  Cloud,  Minnesota,  and  a  graduate  of  the  University  of  Minnesota. 


Children  will  have  a  chance  to  act  as  "private  eyes"  this  summer  when  they  take  the 
new  Museum  Journey,  "The  'Eyes'  Have  It."  On  this  self-guided  tour,  boys  and  girls  will 
seek  clues  in  Museum  exhibits  to  uncover  much  in  the  world  of  nature  which  remains  hid- 
den to  all  except  those  who  really  learn  to  use  their  eyes. 

Unlike  past  Journeys,  children  will  not  need  to  read  exhibit  labels  to  answer  the  ques- 
tionnaire accompanying  the  Journey,  but  instead  they  must  use  "the  magnifying  glass"  of 
their  minds  and  find  the  answers  in  the  exhibits  themselves.  Youngsters  taking  the  new 
summer  Journey  will  find  an  exciting  world  of  color,  form  and  story  hidden  in  nature. 

Tour  directions  and  the  Journey  questionnaire  for  "The' Eyes' Have  It"  may  be  obtained 
at  the  Museum  entrances,  or  at  the  Information  Desk;  the  questionnaires,  when  completed, 
should  be  deposited  in  the  barrels  provided  at  either  entrance.  Awards  for  successful  com- 
pletion of  four  Journeys,  or  multiples  of  four,  are  given  at  special  ceremonies  in  the  Museum 
each  spring.    The  new  summer  Journey  is  available  from  June  through  August. 


through  June  27     Maya  Art,  Rubbings  from  Stone  Carvings 

Special  exhibition  of  43  ink  rubbings  made  from  Maya  reliefs  plus  a  loan  collection 

of  Maya  sculpture.    Hall  9  Gallery, 
through  June  20    Birds,  Beasts  and  Mummery 

Display  of  drawings,  paintings,  and  sculpture  about  the  Museum  and  its  exhibits. 

By  students  of  the  Junior  School  of  the  Art  Institute.    Stanley  Field  Hall. 
June  1-30     16th  Amateur  Handcrafted  Gem  and  Jewelry  Competitive  Exhibition 

The  Chicago  Lapidary  Club  shows  over  100  prize-winning  examples  of  cut  gems, 

jewelry  incorporating  polished  stone,  and  stone  and  polished  slab  collections  in  its 

annual  show  at  the  Museum.    Stanley  Field  Hall. 

JUNE  MEETINGS     State  Microscopical  Society  of  Illinois    June  16  at  7:30  p.m. 
open  to  members  and  interested  non-members 

Pages    JUNE 




Founded  by  Marshall  Field,  18^3 


Lester  Armour 
Harry  0.  Bercher 
William  McCormick  Blair 
Bowen  Blair 
Waller  J.  Cummings 
Joseph  N  Field 
Paul  W.  Goodrich 
Clifford  C.  Gregg 
Samuel  Insull,  Jr. 
Henry  P.  Isham 
Hughston  M.  McBain 
Remick  McDowell 
J.  Roscoe  Miller 
William  H.  Mitchell 
James  L.  Palmer 
John  T.  Pirie,  Jr. 
John  Shedd  Reed 
John  G.  Searle 
John  M.  Simpson 
Edward  Byron  Smith 
Louis  Ware 
E.  Leland  Webber 
J.  Howard  Wood 


William  V.  Kahler 


James  L.  Palmer,  President 
Clifford  C.  Gregg,  First  Vice-President 
Joseph  N.  Field,  Second  Vice-President 
Bowen  Blair,  Third  Vice-President 
Edward  Byron  Smith, 

Treasurer  and  Assistant  Secretary 
E.  Leland  Webber,  Secretary 


E.  Leland  Webber 


Donald  Collier, 

Department  of  Anthropology 
Louis  0.  Williams, 

Department  of  Botany 
Rainer  ^angerl. 

Department  of  Geology 
Austin  L.  Rand, 

Department  of  <['oo/og)' 


Edward  G.  Nash,  Managing  Editor 
Beatrice  Paul, 

Kathleen  Wolff, 

Associate  Editors 

COVER:  A  group  of  paper  cut-out 
flowers  made  by  the  young  students  at 
the  Junior  School  of  the  Art  Institute. 
They  are  on  display  in  the  SchooPs 
Annual  Show  at  the  Museum,  in  June. 

Volume  37,  Number  7   July,  1966 



at  Museum 

Primitive  mask  is  viewed 
by  Airs.  Smith,  Mrs. 
Wallace  D.  Mackenzie 
and  Dr.  Donald  Collier. 

Mrs.  Vernon  Armour, 
Mrs.  John  Shedd  Reed, 
and  Mrs.  Byron  C. 
Karzas  examine  Maya 

An  entire  new  dimension  of  service  will  be  bro\ight  to 
Field  Museum  by  its  newly-organized  Women's  Board  which 
was  inaugurated  at  a  luncheon  in  late  May  and  whose  first 
function  will  be  a  tea  for  Chicago's  consular  corps  on  July  12. 

The  consular  event,  for  the  nearly  50  foreign  delegations 
which  serve  the  area,  will  feature  presentation  of  special 
Field  Museum  Memberships  to  the  consuls.  Mrs.  Hermon 
Dunlap  Smith,  Board  Chairman,  Mrs.  VV.  H.  Arnold,  Tea 
Committee  Chairman,  James  L.  Palmer,  Museum  President, 
and  E.  Leland  Webber,  Director,  are  program  participants. 

Hostessing  special  events,  welcoming  distinguished  visitors 
and  drawing  the  community  closer  to  the  Museum  are  only  a 
part  of  the  functions  of  the  new  organization.  It  will  also 
prepare  women  to  serve  as  volunteers  in  the  Museum's  scien- 
tific and  educational  work.  Looking  toward  this  volunteer 
role,  the  85  women  who  attended  the  charter  luncheon  and 
the  65  others  who  have  accepted  invitations  to  membership 
on  the  Board,  are  answering  questionnaires  on  their  special 
skills,  abilities  and  interests. 

Those  attending  the  inaugural  meeting  were  greeted  b\' 
Mr.  Palmer,  who  emphasized  the  opportunity  for  service  at 
the  Museum  and  cited  the  work  of  Stanley  Field  as  an  exam- 
ple. They  toured  the  Maya  Art  exhibit  and  the  Robert  R. 
McCormick  Laboratory  led  by  Mr.  Webber,  Dr.  Donald 
Collier,  Chief  Curator  of  Anthropology,  and  Dr.  Kenneth 
Starr,  Curator  of  Asiatic  Archaeology. 

"No  institutions  offer  as  broad  a  range  of  public  services 
as  do  the  great  museums,"  declared  Mr.  Webber  during  a 
talk  following  the  luncheon.  He  stressed  that  Field  Museum's 
rapid  growth,  particularly  in  the  educational  area,  creates 
challenges  for  just  such  a  group  as  the  Women's  Board. 

Page  2    JULY 

Museum  Director  Webber  discusses  methods  oj 
conserving  metals  with  Mrs.  James  A.  Cook, 
and  Women's  Board  Chairman,  Mrs.  Smith. 

At  left  Mr.  Webber  and  Airs.  Smith  greet  arrivals, 
'  Mrs.  W.  Pre<:':  Hodgkins  and  Mrs.  D'-'rirk  Vnil. 

Solomon  Gurewitz, 
Anthropology  volunteer, 
points  out  polished 
Tibetan  figure  to 
Mrs.  J.  Harris  Ward. 

Mr.  Webber,  Mrs.  Hodgkins 
and  Mrs.  Elliott  Donnelley  after 
the  meeting. 

Section  of  head  table,  Mrs.  Joseph  A^  Field, 
Mrs.  James  L.  Palmer,  Mr.  Webber,  Mr<^. 
Smith,   Xtrs.  Cook  and  Mrs.  George  11 

JULr    Pages 


by   E.  S.  Richardson,  Jr.,  Curator,  Fossil  Invertebrates 

Ten  years  ago,  hardly  anybody  had  a  TuUy  Monster.  But  such  is  the  rapid  march  of  progress,  that  now 
there  are  hundreds  of  happy  owners  of  this  curious  fossil.  Most  of  these  people  have  collected  their  own, 
from  a  few  square  miles  of  strip-mined  land  on  the  Will-Kankakee  county  line  about  fifty  miles  south  of 
Chicago.  And  Tully  Monsters — all  from  the  same  locality— have  recently  been  appearing  in  rock  shops 
around  the  nation. 

For  many  years  the  Museum  has  been  interested  in  the  Pennsylvanian,  or  Coal  Age,  fossils,  280  million 
years  old,  that  occur  in  untold  numbers  of  ironstone  concretions  in  one  of  the  world's  great  fossil  localities 
almost  on  our  doorstep.  A  hundred  years  ago  they  were  eagerly  collected  from  the  bed  of  Mazon  Creek, 
south  of  Morris,  and  great  collections  were  made  by  amateurs  living  nearby.  L.  E.  Daniels,  J.  C.  Carr. 
Joseph  Even,  P.  A.  Armstrong,  F.  T.  Bliss,  John  Bronson  and  many  others  of  these  early  collectors  gave  or 
loaned  their  unique  specimens  of  fossil  invertebrates  from  Mazon  Creek  to  scientists  who  described  them 
for  the  world  at  large.  Ralph  Lacoe,  a  businessman  in  Pittston,  Pennsylvania,  actually  hired  collectors 
and  bought  specimens.  His  collection,  donated  to  the  U.  S.  National  Museum,  was  the  basis 
of  several  of  the  monographs  that  made  the  name  of  Mazon  Creek  famous. 

Visitors  from  foreign  lands,  coming  to  the  Museum,  are  familiar  with  Mazon 
Creek  fossils,  which  have  been  widely  distributed  since  the  early  days 
of  collecting.    Recent  visitors  from  England,  Poland,  Norway  and 
Russia,  dropping  in  at  my 
office,  have  recog- 
nized our  concre- 
tions   without 
prompting.     The 
quality  of  preser- 
vation and  the 

wide  variety  of  ^HQgMj^^^  ^^W                        '^  life-sized  piaster  model  of 

plants    and  ^^^^^^^^^  1^^  Tu//imonstrum  gregarium,  constructed  by  Dr.  Tibor  Perenyi 

animals  rep-  ^K^^^^^^L  ^V                                    °"  ^^^  basis  of  research  conducted  by  the  author 

resented  are  .^^^^^^^^^^K.-.  w                                                and  Research  Associate  Ralph  Johnson. 

equalled  in 
very  few  oth- 
er localities. 

Forty  years  ago,  when  the  fossil-bearing  concretions  were  becoming  scarce  on  Mazon  Creek,  strip-min- 
ing began  nearby  and  the  big  shovels  that  dug  for  coal  began  dumping  loads  of  the  overlying  soft  shale  in 
great  "spoil  heaps."  In  a  few  years  the  shale  weathered  to  clay  and  the  concretions  appeared  on  the  sur- 
face of  the  hills.  Now  the  field  for  collecting  expanded  and  another  generation  of  amateurs  took  up  the 
enterprise.  The  McLuckie,  Herdina,  Enrietta,  Langford,  Thompson  and  several  other  great  collections 
were  made  from  the  strip  mines  from  the  thirties  to  the  present.  Gradually,  as  some  collectors  fell  away, 
others  in  growing  numbers  took  their  place,  and  the  tradition  of  cooperating  with  scientists  became 
their  tradition.  A  list  of  well  over  a  hundred  people  now  collect  these  outstanding  fossils  and  allow  pro- 
fessional paleontologists  to  study  them.  The  thousands  of  man-hours  that  they  invest  in  collecting  are 
freely  placed  at  the  service  of  science. 

As  a  result  of  all  this  activity,  rare  specimens — the  one-in-a-million  fossils — are  brought  to 
light,  and  also  new  localities  are  discovered  and  explored.    For  in  these  forty  years  the  area 
of  strip-mined  land  has  spread.    And  thus  it  was  that  the  Tully  Monster  swam  into  our  ken. 

Back  about  1958  a  man  came  to  the  Museum  and  asked  to  see  George  Langford,  at  that 
time  the  Curator  of  Fossil  Plants.  Having  introduced  himself  as  Francis  J.  Tully  of  Lock- 
port,  he  showed  Mr.  Langford  some  fossils  from  the  strip  mines.  Soon  they  had  every  one  of 
the  fossil  plants  identified,  and  then  Mr.  Tully  reached  into  his  bag  and  pulled  forth  a  .  . 

Paged    JULY 

Monster.  7.  something  extraordinary  or  unnatural, 
a  prodigy,  a  marvel. — The  New  English  Dictionary 
.  .  .  Or  so  I  called  it  when  Mr.  Langford  showed  it  to  me. 
Extraordinary  it  was,  indeed,  though  not  unnatural.  Clearly 
outlined  on  the  freshly  exposed  surface  of  a  split  concretion  was  the 
impression  of  a  most  curious  prodigy.  At  one  end  of  a  dirigible-like  body 
was  a  spade-shaped  tail;  from  the  other  end  extended  a  long  thin  proboscis  with 
a  gaping  claw;  across  the  body  near  the  base  of  the  proboscis  was  a  transverse  bar 
with  a  little  round  swelling  at  each  end,  outside  the  body.  Mr.  Langford  confessed 
that  he  couldn't  say  what  it  was,  and  so  did  I  when  I  came  back  from  a  field  trip  a  few  days  later  and  had 
a  look  at  it.  Mr.  Tully  kindly  left  a  few  specimens  with  us,  and  every  now  and  then  we  looked  at  them 
and  pondered  the  matter.  We  showed  them  to  our  colleagues  at  the  Museum  and  elsewhere;  no  one  recog- 
nized the  creature.  We  could  not  even  decide  what  phylum  to  put  it  in,  and  that  was  a  serious  and  em- 
barrassing matter. 

Every  animal  belongs  in  a  phylum.  Every  animal  is  either  an  arthropod,  a  mollusk,  a  chordate — three 
of  the  phyla — or  a  member  of  one  of  some  thirty  others.  It  may  sometimes  be  difficult  to  recognize  which 
phylum  is  appropriate,  especially  if  one  can't  see  some  important  character.  This  is  sometimes  the  case 
with  fossils,  since  important  features  may  not  happen  to  be  preserved.  But  usually  one  can  recognize  some 
similarity  to  a  known  animal,  and  postulate  a  relationship.  The  technique  is  to  get  a  sufficient  number  of 
specimens  and  note  all  the  characters  you  can  find.  We  put  the  Tully  Monsters  aside;  perhaps  some  more 
specimens  would  turn  up. 

Some  more  did.  In  the  course  of  strip-mining  for  coal,  the  Peabody  Coal  Company  had  moved  on  to 
a  new  mine.  Pit  Eleven,  south  of  Braidwood,  and  as  the  spoil  heaps  weathered,  concretions  appeared  on 
the  surface  of  the  hills.  So  did  collectors.  Before  long  we  had  several  hundred  Tully  Monsters  at  the 
Museum,  and  knew  of  other  hundreds  in  basements,  garages  and  front  parlors  around  and  about.  Pit 
Eleven  was  in  business.  Not  only  Tully  Monsters  were  turning  up  there,  but  other  curious  fossils  as  well, 
not  found  in  Mazon  Creek  or  the  other  strip  mines. 

From  the  older  mines  we  had  collected  principally  fossil  leaves,  with  a  smattering  of  invertebrates  and 
a  few  fishes  and  amphibians.  The  association  of  plants  and  animals  led  us  to  suppose  that  they 
had  all  lived  together  in  a  swampy  coastal  plain  or  delta.  There  were  a  few  marine  inverte- 
brates— a  chiton,  some  scallops,  a  tube-building  worm,  a  cephalopod — but  they  were  very 
rare.  Apparently,  we  reasoned,  the  area  lay  near  the  shore  and  had  been  briefly  covered 
by  a  fluctuating  sea.  At  Pit  Eleven  it  was  different.  Chitons  and  scallops  were  fairly  plenti- 
ful, and  there  were  also  jellyfish,  sea  slugs  and  holothurians  (sea  cucumbers),  all  definitely 
marine.     Apparently  this  area  was  much  more  regularly  covered  by  the  sea.     So  Tully 

JULT    Pages 

Monsters,  being  common  here,  were  probably  marine  animals. 

We  can  now  say  more  about  these  creatures  than  when 
we  puzzled  over  the  first  ones.  But  we  still  cannot  place  them 
in  a  phylum.  It  is  possible  that  they  are  the  only  known  rep- 
resentatives of  a  hitherto  unknown  extinct  phylum — a  sug- 
gestion that  runs  counter  to  our  expectation  of  orderliness  in 
nature.  The  Monster  has  been  familiar  now  for  some  years 
to  numerous  collectors,  and  specimens  have  gone  far  afield  as 
one  collector  swapped  with  another.  Wherever  they  went, 
the  name  went  with  them,  and  we  had  the  unusual  instance 
of  a  fossil  with  a  common  name  but  still  not  formally  intro- 
duced to  Science.    It  had  to  have  a  proper  name. 

Accordingly,  I  wrote  a  formal  description  and  properly 
christened  our  orphan  in  a  note  in  the  weekly  journal  Science 
of  January  7,  1966,  but  still  without  being  able  to  mention 
the  phylum.  Since  the  common  name  was  already  widely 
used,  I  simply  latinized  it,  and  called  it  Tullimonstrum  gre- 
garium.     {"Gregariiim"  means  common.) 

The  picture  on  this  inonth's  cover  shows  several  Tally 
Monsters  as  they  probably  appeared  in  life,  frisking  about  in 
a  marine  environment,  with  a  jellyfish,  seaweed,  coelacanths, 
shrimps,  a  marine  worm  and  a  snail.     The  spade-like  tail 

contain  fine  black  particles  similar  to  what  we  find  in  the  eyes 
of  the  associated  shrimps  and  fishes.  But  can  they  be  eyes? 
Many  animals — notably  shrimps  and  snails — have  eyes  on 
stalks,  but  each  eye  has  its  own  stalk;  here  the  transverse  bar 
is  a  single  stiff  unit  so  that  if  one  "eye"  moved  forward  the 
other  would  have  had  to  move  backward.  Other  functions 
for  the  round  organs  have  been  suggested :  a  sonar  device  for 
navigating  in  muddy  water;  suction  discs  to  anchor  the  Mon- 
ster to  a  shark,  which  could  then  be  pierced  by  the  proboscis; 
gonads;  kidneys;  balancing  sensors.  None  of  these  is  quite 
probable;  on  balance,  I  suppose  that  they  are  eyes. 

The  shrimp  about  to  be  grasped  by  one  Monster  in  the 
cover  picture  is  drawn  from  a  specimen  of  one  of  the  unde- 
scribed  crustaceans  from  Pit  Eleven,  but  it  may  be  doubted 
that  Tully  Monsters  ate  shrimps.  Certainly,  no  shrimp  shells 
are  observed  in  monsters'  stomachs,  nor  does  it  appear  that  a 
Monster  had  any  means  of  chewing  a  shrimp.  It  may  not  be 
far-fetched  to  suggest  that  it  could  suck  the  juices  of  a  shrimp 
through  its  proboscis.  On  the  basis  that  the  food  in  any  nat- 
ural community  must  be  more  abundant  than  the  feeders,  the 
different  kinds  of  shrimps  that  are  present  remain  a  possibil- 
ity, but  the  leading  contender  is  the  Blob. 



:.  '   a^fflBa 




Left:  the  Tully  Monstefs  ''^head'^  begins  at  a  transverse  bar  and  stretches  out  to  a  claw  on  the  end  of  a  stalk. 

The  crescent  would  certainly  be  considered  a  mouth,  but  it  appears  on  only  one-fifth  oj  the  Monsters  examined. 

Center:  a  tail  showing  color  bands.    Right:  a  "Blob,'^  about  three  inches  across. 

suggests  that  they  could  swim  and  guide  themselves;  the  seg- 
mented body,  clearly  seen  on  many  fossil  specimens,  must 
have  been  flexible,  as  is  the  body  of  an  earthworm.  The  cross- 
section,  a  flattened  oval,  is  conjectural,  as  all  specimens  are 
preserved  as  mere  flat  films.  We  know  from  many  specimens 
that  the  proboscis  was  flexible,  and  since  the  claw  at  its  end 
was  armed  with  eight  tiny  sharp  teeth,  it  must  have  been 
used  for  grasping  prey.  Unfortunately,  we  are  still  com- 
pletely in  the  dark  about  the  mouth  and  the  method  of  feed- 
ing: there  is  no  indication  of  a  "throat"  within  the  proboscis, 
which  was  probably  just  a  muscular  organ  for  carrying  prey 
to  the  mouth.  Some  specimens  have  what  appears  to  be  a 
mouth  just  in  front  of  the  transverse  bar;  some  have  one  just 
behind,  but  most  have  no  indication  at  all  of  a  mouth.  The 
matter  remains  obscure. 

Perhaps  the  most  puzzling  feature  of  the  Tully  Monster  is 
the  transverse  bar  across  its  "chest,"  with  the  two  little  round 
organs  at  the  ends.  These  round  things  are  lentil-shaped,  and 

Blobs  are  enormously  abundant  at  Pit  Eleven  and  are 
large  enough  to  make  a  proper  food  supply  for  Tullimonstrum. 
Nor  is  there  a  problem  of  disposing  of  shells.  Unfortunately, 
we  know  even  less  about  Blobs  than  about  Tully  Monsters. 
We  can't  place  them  in  a  kingdom  (plant  or  animal),  let 
alone  a  phylum,  nor  do  we  know  which  side  is  up.  A  Blob 
might  be  a  type  of  jellyfish,  but  Pit  Eleven  provides  speci- 
mens of  two  perfectly  good  species  of  jellyfish,  and  they  look 
quite  different.  Essentially,  a  Blob  consists  of  a  relatively 
smooth  area,  divided  into  a  variable  number  of  lobes,  plus  a 
larger  area  that  is  rough  or  much  wrinkled,  the  whole  thing 
making  an  oval  impression  as  much  as  six  inches  long. 

Though  we  have  learned  a  great  deal  about  the  curious 
animal  that  Mr.  Tully  pulled  out  of  his  bag  eight  years  ago, 
many  significant  points  are  still  unknown :  particularly  its  re- 
lationship to  other  creatures  and  its  manner  of  feeding — both 
ordinarily  among  the  first  bits  of  information  to  be  learned 
about  a  newly  discovered  form. 

Paged    JULY 


The  fusion  of  science  and  art — of  botany  and 
interpretative  illustration — is  the  achievement  of 
Henry  Evans,  San  Francisco  printer-artist, 
forty  of  whose  flower  prints  are  on  exhibit 
during  the  month  of  July  in  Hall  9  Gallery. 
Mr.  Evans'  linoleum  block  prints  drew  praise 
seldom  given  by  scientists  for  interpretive 
art  in  sciences.    Said  Dr.  Louis  0. 
Williams,  Chief  Curator  of  Botany,  "These 
have  really  caught  the  essential  idea  of  their 
subjects;  everybody  will  know  what  plants 
these  are — yet  much  is  stripped  away. 
They're  gorgeous." 
Praise  from  art  authorities  has  been  equally 
enthusiastic,  with  emphasis  on  the  fine  inter- 
pretative job  done  by  Mr.  Evans. 
Among  plants  in  the  exhibit  are  American  wild 
and  garden  flowers  such  as  swamp  arrowhead, 
sweet  woodruff  and  water  cress. 
Mr.  Evans'  prints  have  been  exhibited  by  the 
Royal  Horticultural  Society  in  London, 
Hunt  Botanical  Library  in  Pittsburgh, 
the  California  Academy  of  Sciences  and 
the  San  Francisco  Public  Library. 
The  prints,  in  limited  edition,  will  be  on  sale 
at  the  Museum  Book  Shop,  priced  $5-$10. 
Mr.  Evans,  a  native  of  Superior,  Wisconsin, 
remarks  that  "when  I  began  work  on  plants, 
I  suddenly  felt  as  though  I  had  stepped  out  of 
the  darkness  into  sunlight."    He  adds  that 
using  wood,  he  was  "unable  to  achieve  the  flow 
of  line  which  plant  forms  must  have  to  be 
convincing,"  but  found  the  line  he  was  after 
when  cutting  the  softer  linoleum  blocks. 

Artist  Henry  Evans  at  worl<.  His  prints  include 
sucti  plants  as  the  graceful  swamp  arrowhead 
with  reflection  in  water,  upper  left,  and  the 
ubiquitous  grassy  sedge,  below. 

JULT    Page  7 


Hundreds  of  delegates  to  the  record-breaking  61st  annual  meeting  of  the  American  Asso- 
ciation of  Museums  visited  Field  Museum  Jime  8,  as  part  of  a  tour  of  Chicago's  principal 
museums.  Many  were  taken  behind  the  scenes  and  to  outstanding  exhibits  on  special 
small-group  escorted  tours.  One  hundred  and  fifty  of  the  visitors  lunched  at  the  Museum. 
A  general  session  vs'ith  greetings  by  Mayor  Richard  Daley  ojiened  the  convention.  With 
831  persons  registered,  this  year's  attendance  vkfas  the  largest  in  AAM  history.  An  AAM 
Council  meeting  and  dinner  was  conducted  at  Field  Museum  on  the  convention's  first 
day.    E.  Leland  VV'ebber,  Director  of  Field  Museum,  was  local  arrangements  chairman. 


Longer  su.mmer  hours  are  in  effect  from  now  through  Labor  Day.  The  Museum  will  re- 
main open  from  9  a.m.  until  8  p.m.  on  Wednesdays,  Fridays,  Saturdays,  and  Sundays.  These 
are  the  evenings  on  which  the  Grant  Park  Concerts  are  held  at  8  p.m.,  in  the  band  shell  just 
across  the  street.    Dinner  will  be  available  in  the  Museum  Cafeteria  until  7  p.m. 


July  1-31  Botanical  Prints  by  Henry  Evans.  Special  exhibit  of  40  linoleum  block 
prints  of  American  flowers  and  plants.     Hall  9  Gallery. 

July  and  August,  weekdays     Guided  Tours. 

2  P.M.  tour  of  Museum  highlights,  followed  by  3  p.m.  color  film  on  Museum  expeditions, 
research  and  exhibit  preparation.    Tour  may  Ije  joined  at  Information  Booth. 

July    7     J.^PAN.     Children's  Movie  at  10  .a.m.  and  1  p.m.,  also  a  cartoon. 

July  14     A  Day  on  the  River.    Children's  Movie  at  10  a.m.  and  11  a.m.,  also  a  cartoon. 

July  21      Prehistoric  Animals.    Children's  Movie  at  10  a.m.  and  1  p.m.,  also  a  cartoon. 

July  28  A  Summer  Walk —  can  you  see?  Children's  Movie  at  10  a.m.  and  1  p.m. 
Movies  are  shown  in  James  Simpson  Theatre.  The  second  showing  on  July  7,  21  and 
28  is  scheduled  at  1  p.m.  to  allow  children  to  attend  the  11  a.m.  Young  Peoples' 
Concerts  held  in  the  Grant  Park  Band  Shell  across  the  street. 

JULY  MEETING     Illinois  Orchid  Society.    July  17  at  2  p.m. 
Open  to  members  and  interested  non-members. 

EARL  EDWARD  SHERFF,  1886-1966 

Earl  Edward  Sherff,  79,  widely  known  for  his  writings  on  the  taxonomy  of  the  genera 
Bidens,  Cosmos  and  Dahlia,  died  May  16. 

Among  his  140  published  papers  on  taxonomic  botany,  were  many  published  by  the 
Field  Museum.  He  was  elected  a  Research  Associate  in  Systematic  Botany  in  1936. 
He  was  also  named  a  Contributor  to  the  Museum  for  his  gift  of  nearly  14,000  herbarium 
specimens  and  thousands  of  photographs  of  type  or  critical  specimens.  One  of  his  earlier 
works.  New  Species  of  Xanthium  and  Solidago,  was  a  joint  paper  with  Dr.  C.  F.  Millspaugh,  the 
Museum's  first  curator  of  botany,  published  in  Fieldiana  in  1918. 

He  served  as  associate  editor  of  the  Botanical  Gazette  and  of  the  journal  Brittonia,  as 
president  and  as  member  of  the  Council  of  the  American  Society  of  Plant  Taxonomists, 
and  of  the  Council  of  the  American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  of  which 
he  was  a  Fellow.  Both  a  new  botanical  library  containing  his  complete  botanical  writings 
and  a  new  science  building  at  Illinois  Wesleyan  University  were  named  in  his  honor. 

Born  in  Flint,  Michigan,  Dr.  Sherff  received  his  bachelor's  degree  from  Albion  College 
and  his  graduate  degrees  from  the  University  of  Chicago.  He  began  teaching  in  Chicago 
public  high  schools  in  1912,  joined  the  faculty  of  Chicago  Teachers  College  in  1923  and 
became  head  of  the  Department  of  Science  in  1929,  serving  until  his  retirement  in  1951. 

HENRY  HORBACK,  1913-1966 

Henry  Horb.\ck,  53,  Assistant  in  Petrology,  died  at  his  desk  suddenly  on  June  13th. 
He  was  first  employed  by  the  Museum  on  July  1,  1941,  to  assist  in  the  cataloging  of  the 
collection  of  fossil  invertebrates.  His  Museum  career  was  interrupted  by  three  years  in 
the  Army  Signal  Corps,  1 942-46,  after  which  he  returned  to  his  work  in  the  Geology  De- 
partment. Most  of  his  time  in  the  following  years  was  devoted  to  the  reorganization  and 
reinstallation  of  the  department  exhibits.  Recently,  he  had  been  involved  in  the  prepara- 
tion of  a  catalog  of  the  meteorite  collection  published  last  year  in  Fieldiana:  Geology. 

Pages    JULY 




Founded  by  Marshall  Field,  1893 

Lester  Armour 
Harry  O.  Bercher 
William  McCormick  Blair 
Bowen  Blair 
Joseph  N.  Field 
Paul  W.  Goodrich 
Clifford  C.  Gregg 
Samuel  Insull,  Jr. 
Henry  P.  I  sham 
Hughston  M.  McBain 
Remick  McDowell 
J.  Roscoe  Miller 
'William  H.  Mitchell 
James  L.  Palmer 
John  T.  Pirie,  Jr. 
John  Shedd  Reed 
John  G.  Searle 
John  M.  Simpson 
Edward  Byron  Smith 
Louis  Ware 
E.  Leland  Webber 
J.  Howard  Wood 


Walter  J.  Cummings 
William  V.  Kahler 


James  L.  Palmer,  President 
Clifford  C.  Gregg,  First  Vice-President 
Joseph  TV.  Field,  Second  Vice-President 
Bowen  Blair,  Third  Vice-President 
Edward  Byron  Smith, 

Treasurer  and  Assistant  Secretary 
E.  Leland  Webber,  Secretary 


E.  Leland  Webber 


Donald  Collier, 

Department  of  Anthropology 
Louis  0.  Williams, 

Department  of  Botany 
Rainer  ^angerl. 

Department  of  Geology 
Austin  L.  Rand, 

Department  of  Zoology 


Edward  G.  Nash,  Managing  Editor 
Beatrice  Paul, 

Kathleen  Wolff, 

Associate  Editors 

COVER:  Tully  Monsters  as  Ihej 
might  have  appeared  in  a  by-gone  sea. 
drawn  for  the  Bulletin  by  E.  S 
Richardson,  Jr.,  Curator,  Fossil  In- 
vertebrates, whose  article  on  this  per- 
plexing species  appears  on  page  four 

Volume  37,  Number  8    August,  1966 


book  review 


People  raise  brows  upon  meeting  a  specialist  on  whales  who 
lives  in  Chicago,  but  it  is  successful  repartee  to  observe  that  in 
the  jet  age,  Chicago  is  about  equally  convenient  to  the  Atlan- 
tic, Pacific  and  Arctic  oceans.  It  might  therefore  be  a  matter 
more  for  pride  than  surprise  in  cosmopolitan  Chicago,  that 
one  of  its  scientists  has  just  produced  an  important  volume  on 
the  living  whales  of  the  world. 

The  author  of  this  work,  Philip  Hershkovitz,  has  been  a 
mammalogist  at  Field  Museum  for  many  years.  Presently 
Research  Curator  of  Mammals,  he  is  the  world's  primary 
authority  on  the  mammals  of  South  America.  As  a  part  of 
his  enduring  and  productive  investigations  of  South  Ameri- 
can mammals.  Curator  Hershkovitz  undertook  to  review  the 
whales,  dolphins,  and  porpoises  of  South  American  waters. 
Finding  that  about  two  score  species  were  known  for  South 
America  and  that  this  was  almost  exactly  half  the  species  of 
living  cetaceans  in  the  whole  world,  he  decided  to  do  them  all. 

The  results  are  published  in  the  259-page  Catalog  oj  the 
Living  Whales,  just  issued  by  the  Smithsonian  Institution  as 
Bulletin  246*  It  is  a  scholarly  list  of  the  species  of  living 
cetaceans  of  the  world  which  Philip  Hershkovitz  finds  ac- 
ceptable as  species  from  evidence  published  about  them.  It 
provides  references  to  the  scientific  literature  of  each  spe- 
cies pertaining  to  known  geographic  distribution  and  taxo- 
nomic  relationships.  This  is  the  first  attempt  for  100  years 
to  review  the  taxonomic  literature  on  the  whales,  porpoises, 
and  dolphins  and  to  present,  by  critical  evaluation,  a  scien- 
tifically acceptable  list  of  the  known  species. 

It  often  surprises  people  to  learn  that  there  are  as  many  as 
eight  families  of  living  whales:  The  family  of  freshwater  dol- 
phins, Susuidae,  has  only  4  species,  but  the  regular  dolphin 
family,  Delphinidae,  contains  40  dolphin  species,  including 
2  or  3  that  are  large  enough  to  be  called  whales  by  laymen 
(the  killer  whale,  for  example),  and  6  species  of  porpoises. 
The  beluga  and  narwhal  family  Monodontidae,  consists  of 
only  2  species,  and  the  sperm  whale  family,  Physeteridae,  is 
also  composed  of  only  2.    Hershkovitz's  new  volume  recog- 

nizes only  15  living  species  in  the  beaked  whale  family, 
Hyperoodontidae.  Thus,  we  know  of  some  69  species  of 
toothed  whales.  The  remaining  whales  have  baleen  instead 
of  teeth;  there  are  three  families  of  these  baleen  whales,  total- 
ing among  them  10  species. 

Joseph  Curtis  Moore,  Curator,  Mammals 

*  Available  from  the  Superintendent  of  Documents,  U.  S.  Govern- 
ment Printing  Office,  Washington,  D.  C,  one  dollar. 

Page  2     AUGUST 

The  Library  of  Field  Museum  houses  many  rare 
and  curious  volumes.  Unfortunately,  these  books, 
some  purchased,  many  others  the  gifts  of  inter- 
ested members,  can  only  occasionally  be  exhibited 
to  the  Membership  and  the  general  public. 

For  some  years,  the  care  of  the  rare  books  col- 
lection has  been  among  the  responsibilities  of  As- 
sociate Librarian  W.  Peyton  Fawcett. 

This  issue  starts  an  irregular  series  of  articles 
in  which  Mr.  Fawcett  will  present  various  parts 
of  the  collection  to  the  readers  of  the  Bulletin. 
He  views  them  not  only  as  important  historical 
and  scientific  works,  but  as  beautiful  examples  of 
the  printer'' s  art.  He  begins  here  with  the  works 
of  the  German-Swiss  naturalist,  Conrad  Gesner. 


onrad  Gesner 

BY  W.  Peyton  Fawcett,  Associate  Librarian 

Perhaps  the  most  admired  of  the  early  naturalists — for  his 
life  as  well  as  his  works — is  the  great  German-Swiss  scholar 
and  physician  Conrad  Gesner  (Gessner),  styled  by  Linnaeus 
"the  ornament  of  his  age." 

He  was  born  into  a  large  and  very  poor  family  on  March 
26th,  1516  at  Zurich,  Switzerland.  Because  of  their  poverty 
his  parents  could  do  little  to  encourage  his  early  interest  in 
reading  and  learning.  The  rudiments  of  his  education  and 
his  taste  for  natural  history,  especially  botany,  he  owed  to  his 
mother's  uncle,  Hans  Frick,  a  Protestant  minister.  In  1531 
his  father  fell  in  the  battle  of  Kappel,  the  same  in  which  the 
famous  reformer  Zwingli  died,  and  Gesner  was  left  to  make 
his  own  way  in  the  world.  He  received  from  the  city  of 
Zurich  a  traveling  scholarship  and  went  to  the  University  of 
Strassbourg  to  study  medicine,  and  subsequently  to  the  uni- 
versities of  Bourges  and  Paris.  He  remained  for  some  time 
in  Paris  studying  the  Greek  and  Latin  languages  and  litera- 
ture. When  his  means  failed  he  returned  to  Zurich  (1535), 
married,  and  supported  himself  by  teaching.  In  1 537  Gesner 
was  appointed  Professor  of  Greek  at  the  University  of  Lau- 
sanne. Three  years  later  his  native  town  gave  him  another 
small  scholarship  to  complete  his  medical  studies.  He  studied 
for  a  short  time  at  the  University  of  Montpellier;  but  went  on 
to  the  University  of  Basle  where  he  completed  his  studies  and 
received  his  medical  degree  in  1541.  Shortly  thereafter  he 
began  practicing  in  Zurich. 

After  this  Gesner's  life  became  more  settled.  He  was  able 
to  support  himself  by  his  medical  practice  and  literary  efforts. 
Indeed,  such  was  his  success  that  he  was  appointed  Chief 

Physician  and  Public  Professor  of  Philosophy  and  Natural 
History  by  the  magistrates  of  Zurich  in  1 554.  He  built  up 
a  large  botanical  garden  and  established  in  his  house  what  is 
probably  the  first  natural  history  museum.  The  latter  is  de- 
scribed by  his  biographer  Schmiedel  in  this  way: 

"[It]  contained  fifteen  windows.  These  windows  he  orna- 
mented in  a  manner  as  unusual  as  it  was  agreeable;  on  each 
of  them  he  painted  most  elegantly  on  the  glass,  arranged  ac- 
cording to  their  classes,  different  species  of  marine,  river,  and 
lacustrine  fishes.  His  shelves  contained  an  immense  quantity 
of  metals,  stones,  gems  and  other  natural  productions,  which 
he  has  either  obtained  as  presents  from  his  friends,  or  pur- 
chased. .  .  .  Amidst  these  riches  of  nature,  he  was  often  wont 
to  spend  his  time,  seeking  tranquillity  of  mind  from  the  con- 
templation of  them,  and  refreshing  himself  after  the  numerous 
toils  and  vexations  of  life,  from  which  the  best  are  not  ex- 

He  was  able  to  make  many  tours  among  the  Alps  and  in 
Germany,  France  and  Italy,  studying  natural  history  and  vis- 
iting libraries  and  scholars.  From  these  he  returned  with 
many  new  specimens  for  his  botanical  garden  and  museum. 

In  1 564  Zurich  was  ravaged  by  the  plague,  and  Gesner, 
as  public  physician,  combatted  it  to  the  best  of  his  ability  and 
at  the  risk  of  his  own  life.  The  disease  abated  that  year  but 
returned  to  the  city  with  renewed  virulence  in  the  middle  of 
July,  1 565.  Gesner  again  went  about  helping  the  victims  and 
was  himself  stricken  on  Dec.  9th.  What  is  described  as  a 
large  "pestilential  carbuncle"  appeared  under  his  right  arm 
and  another  on  his  breast;  but  there  was  no  pain  in  the  head 

AUGUST    Page  3 

or  fever.  Gesner  had  seen  many  die  with  precisely  these 
symptoms  and  therefore  did  not  expect  to  recover.  He  called 
his  friends  together,  made  his  will,  and  serenely  awaited  death. 
On  the  fifth  day  of  his  illness  he  felt  that  the  end  was  near  and 
had  a  bed  set  up  in  his  museum.  There,  on  December  13th, 
1565,  "he  expired,"  in  the  words  of  one  of  his  biographers, 
"amid  the  monuments  of  his  labours,  thankful  for  what  he 
had  been  able  to  accomplish,  and  supported  by  all  the  pious 
hopes  and  consolations  of  a  Christian  philosopher."  He  was 
only  49  years  old. 

Everyone  who  has  written  of  Gesner  has  expressed  sur- 
prise at  the  amount  of  work  he  was  able  to  accomplish  despite 
the  difficulties  of  his  early  years,  the  many  duties  of  his  chosen 
profession,  his  frequent  illnesses,  and  his  early  death.  One 
writer,  speaking  of  his  "History  of  Animals"  remarks  that,  in- 
stead of  being  the  work  of  a  busy  man  of  the  world,  "...  one 
would  suppose  it  the  labour  of  a  recluse,  shut  up  for  an  age  in 
his  study,  and  never  diverted  from  his  object  by  any  other 
cares."  Moreover,  the  range  of  his  works  is  tremendous,  in- 
cluding studies  in  language,  literature,  medicine,  natural  his- 
tory, and  theology. 

In  1 545  he  published  the  first  part  of  his  famous  Bibliotheca 
Universalis,  a  critical  catalog  of  all  known  Greek,  Roman 

and  Hebrew  literature,  giving,  m  addition  to  the  authors  and 
titles,  some  information  on  the  contents  of  the  works  men- 
tioned, a  specimen  of  the  style,  and  an  estimate  of  the  value 
of  the  work.  The  second  part,  titled  Pandectarum,  was  issued 
in  1548  and  is  divided  into  19  books,  arranged  by  subject. 
The  20th  book,  on  medical  subjects,  was  never  completed; 
the  21st,  on  theological  subjects,  was  issued  in  1549.  In  1555 
he  published  his  Mitliridat'';,  an  account  of  about  130  lan- 
guages then  known,  with  the  Lord's  prayer  in  23  of  them. 
He  also  issued  many  editions  of  Greek  and  Latin  authors, 
with  notes  and  commentaries,  dictionaries,  more  than  one 
edition  of  Galen,  and  several  small  works  on  medicine,  in- 
cluding one  on  milk  and  another  on  the  plague. 

Of  his  works  on  natural  history  the  Historia  Animalium  is 
the  work  usually  associated  with  his  name  and  the  one  on 
which  his  reputation  is  principally  based.  The  "History  of 
Animals"  appeared  in  five  folio  volumes,  published  in  Zurich 
between  1551  and  1587.  Vol.  1  (1551)  treats  of  viviparous 
quadrupeds;  vol.  2  (1554),  oviparous  quadrupeds;  vol.  3 
(1555),  birds;  vol.  4  (1558),  fishes  and  other  aquatic  animals; 
and  vol.  5  (posthumous,  1587),  snakes.  The  whole  work  ex- 
tends to  4,500  pages  and  contains  several  hundred  woodcuts, 
the  great  majority  of  the  animals  discussed  being  represented. 

Two  pages  from  Volume  1  of  Gesner' s  Historia  Animalium.  On  the  right  is  Dama  vulgaris,  the  common  fallow-deer,  or  as  Gesner  spells  it, 
''/alouue  deere."  At  one  time  these  deer  were  royal  property  and  were  kept  and  hunted  in  extensive  park  areas.  Linnaeus,  in  preparing  his  Systema 
Naturae,  made  great  use  of  Gesner' s  zoological  work.  Thus,  the  text  and  illustration  shown  below  are  cited  by  him  in  establishing  the  scientific 
name  of  the  species,  Cervus  dama.     Today,  this  species  is  known  as  Dama  dama  of  the  deer  jamily,  Ccrvidae. 

Page  4    AUGUST 

Our  library  has  only  vol.  3  of  the  first  edition.  Vols.  1  and  2 
of  our  set  are  of  the  second  edition  (Frankfurt,  Germany, 
V.  1,  1620,  V.  2,  1617).  Vols.  4  and  5  are  German  transla- 
tions from  the  original  Latin:  Fischbuch  (Zurich,  1575)  and 
Schlangenbuch  (Zurich,  1589). 

The  general  arrangement  of  the  work  is  Aristotelian,  the 
main  division  being  between  land  and  water  animals.  Whales, 
for  instance,  are  included  among  the  fishes,  and  bats  among 
the  birds.  Animals  are  assigned  to  different  orders  on  the 
basis  of  domestication,  size,  and  similar  criteria,  and  are  dis- 
cussed, for  the  most  part,  in  alphabetical  order.  Each  is  de- 
scribed under  eight  headings:  1 — the  names  in  different  lan- 
guages, ancient  and  modern;  2 — external  characteristics  and 
native  country;  3 — mode  of  life;  4 — habits  and  behavior; 
5 — capture,  domestication,  and  rearing;  6 — uses  as  food;  7 — 
vises  as  medicine;  8 — references  made  to  them  by  authors, 
moral  uses,  historical  allusions,  etc. 

The  many  woodcuts  that  grace  these  volumes  are,  in  our 
time,  probably  their  best  known  feature,  particularly  those  of 
monsters  (the  sea  serpent)  and  mythical  animals  (the  bishop- 
fish,  the  monk-fish,  and  the  unicorn).  It  is  surprising  that 
Gesner  could  incur  the  expense  of  having  so  many  engraved; 
for,  as  one  writer  has  pointed  out,  "He  must  have  had  what 

may  be  almost  called  a  little  manufactory  under  his  charge; 
and  we  are  told  that  the  artists  resided  in  his  own  house." 

In  Gesner's  time  and  for  many  years  thereafter  this  work 
was  considered  the  principal  authority  on  zoological  subjects 
and  was  reprinted,  abridged,  and  translated  many  times. 
Despite  its  limitations,  it  is  still  useful  to  a  certain  extent  to- 
day, particularly  in  determining  the  names  of  animals  in 
many  different  languages,  and  as  primary  source  for  many 
generic  and  specific  names. 

Gesner  was  well  known  to  his  contemporaries  as  a  botanist 
but  his  projected  "History  of  Plants"  was  never  written.  Elli- 
son Hawks  in  his  Pioneers  of  Plant  Study  (New  York,  1 928)  gives 
us  some  idea  of  what  the  text  of  this  work  would  have  been, 
using  as  his  sources  some  of  Gesner's  letters: 

"He  recognized  species  as  falling  into  groups  and  genera, 
and  as  varying  in  minor  and  less  constant  characters.  It  is 
possible,  therefore,  that  he  had  a  clearer  conception  of  classi- 
fication into  groups  of  progressively  increasing  generality  than 
any  of  his  predecessors.  He  also  insisted  that  flower,  fruit, 
and  seed  afford  better  indications  of  affinity  than  do  mere 
habit  or  foliage.  This  sound  opinion  he  supported  by  adding 
details  of  flowers  and  fruits  to  his  drawings  in  a  manner  that 
had  not  been  done  before."  (Continued  on  page  7) 

Two  pages  Jrom  Gesner's  Fischbuch  (German  translation  of  Volume  4  of  Historia  Animalium).  The  illustrations  are  ajter  the  "History  of 
Northern  Peoples"  of  Olaus  Magnus  (Olaf  Storr),  7490-7538,  Catholic  Archbishop  of  Upsala,  Stveden.  Besides  ethnographic  matters,  the  book 
deals  with  game  animals,  birds,  fishes,  and  various  "midnight  wonders"  including  the  whales  pictured  below,  and  sea  serpents.  Gesner  apparently 
had  his  doubts  about  the  validity  of  the  latter,  for  he  notes  that  the  responsibility  /or  the  truth  and  accuracy  oj  these  illustrations  rests  with  Olaus. 




.  3» 

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AUGUST    Paged 

w-N  SEARCHING  OLD  BOOKS  for  a  cluc  to  what  is  important  in 
o^zoolog\-,  I  came  upon  an  intriguing  statement  by  Buffon, 
who  wrote  the  many  volume  "Histoire  Naturelle  .  .  .  ," 
nearly  200  years  ago.  Comte  George  Louis  Leclerc  Buffon  was 
zoologist-laureate  of  the  court  of  Louis  XV.  A  brilliant  man,  a 
polished  courtier,  and  the  innovator  of  a  theory  of  evolution 
a  century  before  Darwin,  he  was  criticized  by  church  and  sci- 
entist alike.  But  his  influence  helped  natural  history  gain  re- 
spectability, social  prestige,  and  patronage.  Once  when 
criticized  for  devoting  more  space  in  his  books  to  some  ani- 
mals than  to  others,  he  quipped,  "An  animal  should  not 
occupy  more  space  in  man's  mind  than  it  occupies  in  nature." 

This  is  a  wonderful  statement  to  take  for  a  text,  or  as  the 
basis  of  a  debate.  Perhaps  there  is  something  here  that  can 
provide  an  objective  criterion  in  a  field  dominated  by  sub- 
jectivity. But  first  we  should  look  at  the  statement  and  see 
what  it  can  mean. 

If  it  means  equating  size  of  animal  with  its  importance, 
as  seems  the  case,  the  solution  is  easy.  Let  us  illustrate  it 
with  this  well  known  example : 

Animal  Weight 

Moose 1,000  lbs. 

Deer 200  lbs. 

Meadow  mouse 2  lbs. 

At  first  glance  the  moose  appears  5,000  times  more  im- 
portant than  the  mouse. 

But  another  interpretation  of  Buffon's  statement  is  pos- 
sible. By  "an  animal"  one  could  assume  a  species  rather 
than  an  individual.    The  sum  total  of  a  small,  common  ani- 

mal could  outweigh  that  of  a  large,  rare  species.  Let  us  look 
at  our  three  examples  again,  on  the  basis  of  the  combined 
weight  of  the  individuals  of  a  species  (the  biomas)  per  acre. 





per  acre 

per  acre 

Meadow  mouse. 

.       .2  lb. 


20  lbs. 


.     200  lbs. 

.05    /  per  20  acres 

10  lbs. 


.1,000  lbs. 

.005    1  per  sq.  mile 

1.5  lbs. 

In  the  total  amount  of  animal  per  acre,  i.e.,  space  occu- 
pied, the  mouse  is  nearly  14  times  as  important  as  the  moose. 
This  is  not  an  illusion.  The  mouse  uses  solar  energy  many 
times  greater  than  that  used  by  the  moose. 

But  there  are  many  other  factors  besides  size  or  bulk  in 
estimating  importance  in  the  complex  world  of  nature.  Just 
as  "no  man  is  an  island,"  so,  no  animal  lives  alone.  It  is  part 
of  a  web  of  life,  each  eats  something  and  is  eaten  by  some- 
thing else.    Each  is  part  of  the  food  chain  of  the  web  of  life. 

Again,  let  us  illustrate  with  an  example:  To  the  Yankee 
whalers  who  used  to  ship  out  of  New  Bedford,  a  blue  whale 
100  feet  long,  weighing  over  100  tons  was  a  pretty  important 
animal.  But  the  small  shrimp-like  animals,  smaller  than 
the  shrimp  served  in  a  shrimp  cocktail,  that  swarm  in  the 
nutrient-rich  waters  of  polar  seas  were  no  concern  of  the 
whalers  and  were  grouped  imder  the  general  name  of  brit  or 
krill.  Yet  these  shrimp  are  the  main  food  of  the  blue  whales, 
the  "grass"  of  the  ocean  that  the  whale  strained  from  the  sea 
water  with  its  elaborate  sieve  of  whalebone.  Without  the 
brit,  there  would  be  few  whalebone  whales. 

There  are  interrelationships  even  more  obscure  and  com- 

Page6     AUGUST 

plex  than  the  simple  food  chain  mentioned.  There  is  the 
whole  question  of  how  animals  get  their  energy  from  the 
sun,  the  sole  source;  and  how  they  get  materials  from  the  air 
and  the  soil  through  the  intermediate  role  of  plants.  The 
relationship  of  plants  and  animals  in  maintaining  the  carbon 
dioxide  and  oxygen  content  in  the  air,  and  the  very  impor- 
tant role  of  certain  soil  bacteria  which  are  involved  in  making 
nitrogen  available  to  living  things,  are  all  to  be  considered 
in  judging  relative  importance. 

So  many  and  such  diverse  ramifications  of  zoology  may  be 
confusing.  Can  we  pick  out  what  is  important  to  study  in 
animals?  What  aspect  of  our  research  is  of  most  value?  This 
question  of  importance  in  non-commercial  fields  of  human 
endeavor,  of  values  that  cannot  be  counted  by  a  banker,  is  an 
old  one.  To  follow  an  old  custom,  we  can  suggest  a  partial 
answer  by  using  an  allegory.  A  stone  building  was  being  con- 
structed. A  certain  stone  was  rejected.  It  did  not  fit  into 
foundation  or  wall,  so  it  was  put  aside.  But  as  the  building 
was  nearing completion,  a  keystone  was  needed.  Then  it  was 
found  that  only  the  rejected  stone  fitted,  unifying  the  whole 
structure,  making  it  complete  and  solid.  The  moral,  of 
course,  is  pointed  up  by  asking  what  is  the  important  brick 
in  a  wall,  the  important  link  in  a  chain,  the  important  thread 
in  a  net?  Similarly,  what  can  be  the  important  units  in  as 
complex  a  system  as  that  of  the  biosphere? 

Biology  is  studied  at  many  levels  of  organization :  that  of 
the  molecule,  cell,  tissue,  organ,  whole  animal,  ecological 
community  and  fauna.  There  is  structure,  behavior,  and 
function  at  each  level.  There  are  also  specialties  such  as 
reading  the  genetic  code,  the  role  of  hormones  as  messengers, 
and  intelligence  and  learning.  Among  the  newer  approaches 
is  the  possibility  of  argon-potassium  dating  that  may  enable 
us  to  study  evolutionary  rates  of  phyletic  lines  well  docu- 
mented with  fossils.  A  scientist  must  specialize  to  excel  in 
the  study  of  one  small  part  of  biology  as  applied  to  only  a  few 
of  the  one  million  species  of  living  animals.  Museum  zoolo- 
gists usually  specialize  in  some  branch  of  knowing  and  under- 
standing the  kinds  of  animals  there  are,  the  diversity  of  kinds 
of  living  things. 

But  when  we  look  for  importance,  how  are  we  judging? 
A  materialist  may  point  to  how  science  has  been  made  to 
pay.  A  humanitarian  may  point  to  how  man's  lot  has  been 
bettered  by  science,  providing  more  food  or  controlling  dis- 
ease. A  transcendentalist  throws  up  his  hands.  One  scien- 
tist may  point  out  how  his  fashionable  subject  has  gained 
material  support.  A  philosopher  may  point  out  that  increase 
in  knowledge  of  animals,  of  which  he  is  one,  has  enabled  man 
to  understand  himself  and  the  world  of  nature  in  which  he 
lives  and  of  which  he  is  a  part. 

What  is  important  in  zoology  may  be  a  meaningless  ques- 
tion. But  we  can  suggest  that  the  most  dramatic  story  in 
biology,  the  epic  of  life,  its  saga,  is  the  adaptation  of  living 
things  to  their  changing  environment  and  to  each  other. 
This  is  evolution  that  started  with  simple  life  forms  in  the  sea 
a  billion  years  ago.  From  it  has  been  produced  the  great 
diversity  of  intricately  fashioned  and  complexly  interrelated 
organisms  we  know.  It  has  affected  every  organism  at  every 
level,  in  every  function,  and  it  is  a  process  that  is  still  going  on. 

GeSNER    {Continued  from  page  5) 

At  the  time  of  his  death  he  had  accumulated  about  1,500 
of  these  drawings  and  400  wood-blocks.  These  passed  from 
hand  to  hand  for  almost  200  years,  the  remnants  being  pub- 
lished in  two  volumes  at  Nuremberg,  Germany,  1751-1771. 
Unfortunately,  we  do  not  have  a  copy  of  this  valuable  work. 

Of  his  many  smaller  works,  the  library  possesses  a  copy  of 
his  book  on  fossils,  De  Rerum  Fossilium,  Lapidum,  ft  Gemmarum 
(Zurich,  1565).  In  this 
work  he  discusses  all 
things  that  are  dug  out 
of  the  earth  and  provides 
illustrations  of  various 
fossils,  stone  implements, 
and  even  a  lead  pencil ! 

The  best  summation 
of  the  value  of  Gesner's 
work  appears,  I  believe, 
in  the  "Memoir  of  Ges- 
ner"  prefixed  to  the  vol- 
ume of  The  jYaturalisf  s 
Library  dealing  with 
horses  (Mammalia, 
v.  12;  Edinburgh,  1841): 

"With  much  that  is 
crude,  obsolete,  and  use- 
less, the  necessary  con- 
sequence of  the  period 
and  circumstances  under 

^6  ijl  ftn  f  urac  /  tx)^  DoarofihK  fit* 

•nwPrTii'i    '      -111  n  ■  iiMn>i>iMl  Oiii ■  iMi 

Will  iiib— i>«.ii»«>»»i<..);^.«»»iiimiiiiii.i, 

mm  l»««f tiflllf     t,t^mUmtm»tn%ttf, 

llw—liiMMiOii^lMii  iliii^wwMtwiP.C*«rti 
>l»H>llll   !tw-l** *>«»-<»■ 


mil »!. !»»..».. 

IlilK  KniftriiifKT  Oacfhi  froidnt  in  «ii  Mrm  lie 

tbaawk  M.O.  LXXV. 

Title-page  from  the  Fischbuch. 

which  he  wrote,  his  publications  must  be  regarded  as  of  great 
merit,  displaying  a  wonderful  accumulation  of  knowledge  de- 
rived from  previous  writers,  with  an  important  accession  result- 
ing from  his  own  observation  and  power  of  thought.  Whether 
we  consider  them  as  a  repertory  of  the  existing  knowledge  of 
the  times,  or  in  reference  to  the  light  which  they  for  the  first 
time  shed  on  the  subjects  of  which  they  treat,  they  must  ever 
secure  for  their  author  a  venerable  name  among  the  "Fathers 
of  Natural  History." 

^on  t)cm  Hdcnkfi^c^. 

Epifcopus  mahniu.      i£miXltttblf<i)«ff, 

TPen  fcincr  jcfTult/rtiS  an  wd  Jxti  »:rcn  crgtfangtn. 

mVW^as  jar  ola  man  $alt  i  y  t  '•  fol ""  fSlttxr 
ftftt)  mit  fUtbtt  gt|}alt  pcnijlid)  allcr  jicctXB 
cims  Sifcbotf*  nnlid),  i>n  ecm  p(}«b  be)- mccre 
bty  polAitb  iiAcl)(l  gcfjngtn  (crti  woibtn  /  »mib  Xxm 
polcnbifti)?  f  iinip  fiit0rtra(itit.lVcl<l)ca  bucd)  ureas 
jd'dxn  nunsClid)  bt buncR  tvilltn  i  bttxiucn  vnt>  bo 
pi^rtn  /  baf  te  tin  grofli  bejitb  l?ab«  tvibtr  m  bj  mccr. 
ja  tvdd)<m  ale«8  ttefOtt  iji  woibt/ fol  C9  (id)  jfi  |hmb 
bartyn0(m«>f^'n,vnbmbie  ticf)v  r(rfd)lof)to  t^abm. 

The  common  notion  that  everything  on  earth  had 
its  counterpart  in  the  sea  is  illustrated  bji  this 
woodcut  oj  the  sea-bishop  or  bishop-fish  from  the 
Fischbuch.  The  story  goes  that  the  bishop-fish 
was  found  on  the  shores  of  Poland,  taken  bejore 
the  king  and  given  his  freedom  when  he  indicated 
by  signs  that  he  wished  to  return  to  his  native 
element.  Some  have  speculated  that  the  creature 
was  a  walrus. 

AUGUST     Page  7 


Four  Field  Museum  scientists  with  research  interests  in  the  Pacific  area  will 
participate  in  a  three-week  science  conference  in  Tokyo  beginning  August  22. 
Dr.  Robert  F.  Inger,  Curator  of  Amphibians  and  Reptiles,  Dr.  Joseph  C.  Moore, 
Curator  of  Mammals,  Dr.  Alan  Solem,  Curator  of  Lower  Invertebrates,  and  Dr. 
Kenneth  Starr,  Curator  of  Asiatic  Archaeology  and  Ethnology,  will  be  among  the 
hundreds  of  scientists   attending  the  Eleventh  Pacific  Science  Congress. 

The  Congress,  a  regularly  conducted  gathering,  focuses  on  a  wide  range  of 
scientific  studies  relating  to  the  Pacific  region.  Its  aims  are  promotion  of  the  in- 
vestigation of  regional  scientific  problems,  particularly  as  they  affect  the  welfare 
of  the  area's  peoples,  and  to  strengthen  the  friendly  bonds  between  scientists  of 
various  countries. 

Field  Museum  representatives  will  present  six  papers.  Dr.  Inger's  subjects  are 
"Reproductive  Patterns  of  Lizards  in  a  Bornean  Rain  Forest"  and  "Competitive 
Relations  Among  Three  Species  of  Rain  Forest  Frogs."  Dr.  Moore  will  report  on 
"Evidences  of  Maturity  and  Sexual  Dimorphism  in  Beaked  Whale  Species  of  the 
Genus  Mesoplodon  from  the  Pacific  Ocean"  and  "First  Quantitative  Evidence 
Upon  the  Relationship  Between  the  Four-Toothed  Whales,  Berardius  bairdi  oi  the 
North  Pacific  and  B.  arnuxi  of  South  Temperate  Oceans."  Dr.  Solem's  subjects 
will  be  "Age  and  Origin  of  Pacific  Land  Snail  Fauna"  and  "Morphological 
Changes  Associated  with  Vitriniform  and  Succineiform  Shells  and  Their  Bearing 
on  Gastropod  Classifications." 

Following  the  conference.  Dr.  Starr  will  visit  Chinese  collections  in  Tokyo 
and  Kyoto  in  connection  with  his  study  of  the  Chinese  black  pottery  culture 
and  Chinese  rubbings. 


In  recognition  of  his  scientific  work  on  neotropical  birds,  Emmet  R.  Blake,  Curator 
of  Birds,  received  the  honorary  degree  of  Doctor  of  Science  on  May  29  from  his 
alma  mater,  Presbyterian  College  of  South  Carolina,  Clinton,  S.  C.  Blake  has 
been  on  the  Museum  staff"  since  1935,  and  has  contributed  substantially  to  the 
knowledge  of  the  rich  bird  fauna  of  Central  and  South  America.  He  is  presently 
working,  under  a  National  Science  Foundation  grant,  on  a  "Manual  of  Neotrop- 
ical Birds."  in  several  volumes. 


The  Museum  has  enjoyed  increased  attendance  of  over  30%  during  the  first  half 
of  1966.  With  950,000  visitors  through  June  of  this  year,  total  1966  attendance  is 
expected  to  far  outstrip  last  year's  million  and  a  half.  This  year's  peak  attendance 
so  far  came  in  April,  with  249,000  visitors,  the  second  highest  of  any  month  since 
1934.  April  attendance  represented  a  60%  increase  over  the  same  month  in  1965. 
The  greater  number  of  Museum  visitors  may  be  attributed  to  increasing  public 
interest  in  natural  history  and  archaeology,  as  well  as  to  more  Museum  visits  by 
school  groups.  New  exhibits  like  the  Chalmers  Topaz,  special  shows  like  the  Maya 
Art  show,  and  modernized  display  of  existing  exhibits  such  as  the  Benin  Art  and 
that  of  Bushman,  the  famous  gorilla  from  Lincoln  Park  Zoo,  have  all  contributed 
to  drawing  more  visitors  to  the  Museum. 


August,  weekdays    Guided  Tours 

2  P.M.  tour  of  Museum  highlights,  followed  by  3  p.m.  color  film  on  Museum 
expeditions,  research  and  exhibit  preparation.  Join  tour  at  Information  Booth. 
Children's  Movie  at  10  a.m.  and  1  p.m.,  also  a  cartoon. 

August  4    The  Arctic  Region  and  Polar  Bears 

Children's  Movie  aat  10  a.m.  and  1  p.m.,  also  a  cartoon. 

August  1 1     Water  Birds  - 

Children's  Movie  at  10  a.m.  and  11  a.m.,  also  a  cartoon.  Movies  are  shown  in 
James  Simpson  Theatre.  The  second  showing  on  August  4  is  scheduled  at 
1  p.m.  to  allow  children  to  attend  the  11  a.m.  Young  People's  Concert  held  in 
the  Grant  Park  Band  Shell  across  the  street. 


Miss  Marion  K.  Hofl'mann,  .Auditor 
of  the  Museum,  retired  on  June  30  after 
14  years  service.  Miss  Hoffmann  was 
appointed  the  first  woman  Auditor  in 
1957,  in  recognition  of  her  capable  rec- 
ord in  the  auditing  office. 

She  brought  to  the  finance  office  a  ver\- 
real  concern  for  the  financial  matters, 
both  personal  and  professional,  she  was 
called  upon  to  solve  on  behalf  of  the 
Staff"  and  visiting  scientists.  Probably 
only  one  who  has  been  associated  with  a 
museum  with  widespread  activities  in 
many  parts  of  the  world  can  appreciate 
the  multiplicity  of  problems  that  arise, 
iTiost  of  which  are  almost  unique. 

The  period  of  Miss  Hoffmann's  in- 
cumbency was  one  of  growth  of  the  Mu- 
seum's financial  operations,  both  in  size 
and  complexity.  It  is  a  tribute  to  her 
dedication  to  the  Museum  that  the  rec- 
ords were  in  the  fine  condition  they  were 
at  her  retirement,  in  spite  of  the  con- 
stantly increasing  demands  of  the  office. 
The  Museum  is  indebted  to  her  for  her 
loyal  service  and  also  for  remaining  in 
office  for  3  years  beyond  normal  retire- 
ment, a  period  w-hich  allowed  much  re- 
organization of  the  financial  records  by 
personnel  under  her  supervision. 

Miss  Eleanor  Sheffner,  Assistant  Audi- 
tor, also  left  the  service  of  the  Museum 
recently.  Miss  Sheffner  resigned  after 
ten  years'  service  to  accept  another  po- 
sition. Much  of  the  progress  made  in 
recent  years  in  the  financial  records  is 
directly  attributable  to  the  meticulous 
care  with  which  she  handled  every  aspect 
of  her  work. 

Both  of  these  ladies  will  be  missed  by 
their  many  friends  at  Field  Museum  who 
extend  best  wishes  to  Miss  Hoffmann  in 
her  retirement  and  to  Miss  Sheffner  in 
her  new  association. 



CHICAGO.  ILLINOIS  60605    AC.  312.  922-9410 

E.  Leland  Webber, 

Director  of  the  Museum 

Edward  G.  Nash,  Managing  Editor 
Beatrice  Paul,  Associate  Editor 


Page  8     AUGUST 

Volume  37,  Number  9    September,  1966 



An  opportunity  to  meet  Museum  staff,  and  work  with  specimens  and  materials  from  the  Museum's  scientific 
collections,  is  again  offered  in  a  series  of  unique  workshops  open  to  the  children  and  grandchildren  of  Members. 
Designed  by  the  Raymond  Foimdation  to  stimulate  and  develop  interest  in  the  study  of  nature  and  man,  these 
small-group  workshops,  geared  to  different  age  levels,  have  been  enthusiastically  received  by  Museum  Members 
and  their  families  since  the  fall  of  1963.    This  year  five  new  programs  have  been  added. 

Reservations  are  necessary  and  application  forms  are  enclosed  with  this  month's  Bulletin.  Since  it  will  prob- 
ably not  be  |x>ssible  to  accommodate  all  applicants,  we  urge  you  to  mail  in  your  applications  early.  Please  list 
the  program,  date  and  hour  you  wish,  in  the  order  of  preference.  Each  applicant  will  be  scheduled  into 
one  program  only,  and  reservations  will  be  accepted  in  the  order  in  which  they  are  received.  Applicants  accepted 
will  receive  a  confirmation  card  which  will  serve  as  an  admission  card  to  the  workshop. 


10:30  .\.M.  for  ages  6  and  7 
Parents  are  also  invited 

1 :30  P.M.  for  ages  8  and  9 
Parents  are  also  invited 

Life  in  an  Old  Dead  Tree 
Marie  Svoboda 

This  is  a  special  program  for  family 
groups  and  will  demonstrate  the  differ- 
ent kinds  of  animals  that  might  make 
their  home  in  an  old  dead  tree.  Such  a 
dwelling  place  is  picked,  not  for  its  beau- 
tiful setting  nor  for  its  beautiful  view, 
but  for  the  protection  it  affords. 

10:30  .\.M.  for  ages  10-12 
Ocean  Life 
George  Fricke 

A  glimpse  of  ocean  life  will  be  presented 
through  films  and  the  handling  of  speci- 
mens of  marine  invertebrates.  The  sea 
is  a  source  of  wonder  about  which  man 
still  knows  very  litde.  Boys  and  girls  will 
learn  a  little  of  what  is  already  known 
and  how  much  has  yet  to  be  discovered. 
A  short  tour  in  the  exhibition  halls  will 
acquaint  the  youngsters  with  some  of  the 
marine  vertebrates. 


10:30  and  1 :30  p.m.  for  ages  10-12 

Indians  of  Woodlands  and  Plains 
Harriet  Smith 

In  different  regions,  Indian  tribes  devel- 
oped a  life  that  fitted  their  kind  of  coun- 

try by  exploiting  materials  furnished  by 
nature.  In  this  workshop,  youngsters 
will  handle  these  raw  materials  and  see 
for  themselves  how  their  qualities  were 
utilized  in  the  making  of  tools,  weapons, 
and  household  equipment.  Movies  that 
show  how  Indian  tribes  lived  in  the 
woodlands  and  western  plains  before  the 
settlers  came  give  a  basis  for  class  discus- 
sions comparing  Indian  ways  of  life. 

10:30  A.M.  for  ages  6  and  7  accompanied 
by  at  least  one  parent 

Boneyard  Menagerie 
Ernest  Roscoe 

This  workshop  will  "ratde  the  skeletons 
in  a  few  closets"  by  discussing  the  pre- 
historic relatives  of  familiar  animals 
found  in  zoos  and  aquaria.  Be  prepared 
for  a  few  surprises ! 


10 :30  .A.M.  for  ages  6  and  7  accompanied 
by  at  least  one  parent 

Boneyard  Menagerie  (See  above) 

10:30  A.M.  and  1 :30  p.m.  for  ages  10-12 
Ocean  Life  (See  above) 

10:30  .A.M.  forages  10-13 
Caveman  to  Civilization 
Edith  Fleming 

A  movie  on  the  life  of  the  cave  men, 
which  shows  how  they  hunted  prehis- 
toric animals,  opens  this  workshop.  In 
the  following  discussion-demonstration 
period,  boys  and  girls  will  examine  real 
tools  used  by  cave  men  thousands  of 
years  ago,  learn  how  they  were  made, 
and  coiupare  them  with  tools  of  today. 

10:30  .\.M.  for  ages  8  and  9 


Ernest  Roscoe 

A  beginner's  introduction  to  rocks  and 

minerals  by  means  of  specimen  study, 

demonstrations,  and  informative  session 

in  the  exhibition  halls.    Topics  include: 

what  are  rocks?  how  are  they  formed? 
what  characteristics  can  the  beginner  use 
in  identifying  rocks? 

1 :30  p.m.  for  ages  10-13 
Rock  and  Mineral  Kingdom 
Ernest  Roscoe 

This  is  a  more  advanced  program  on 
rocks  and  minerals.  Reading  and  writ- 
ing skills  are  required  for  the  work  with 
specimens  and  question  sheets  in  the  ex- 
hibition halls,      {continued  on  Page  12) 

Page  2     SEPTEMBER 

The  Legacy  of 

0\  FEBRUARY  21,  1930,  a  handwritten  note  came  to  the 
Registrar  of  Field  Museum,  from  the  President  of  the 
Museum:  "Please  open  a  new  a/c  [account]  on  the  books 
'Hall  of  Physical  Anthropology'  &  put  Mr.  Marshall  Field's 
check  to  the  credit  of  that  a/c  [signed]  S.  Field."  That  same 
month,  a  telegram  to  Miss  Malvina  Hoffman,  the  New  York 
sculptor,  "Have  proposition  to  make,  do  you  care  to  consider 
it?  Racial  types  to  be  modelled  while  traveling  around  the 
world,"  brought  Miss  Hoffman  to  Chicago  and  a  meeting  with 
Stanley  Field  and  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  Field  Museum. 

The  relationship  established  at  this  meeting  lasted  for 
many  years,  and  produced  "The  Races  of  Man,"  Field  Mu- 
seum's most  famous  exhibit,  and  Miss  Hoffman's  most  monu- 
mental work,  104  bronzes,  life-size  or  larger,  revealing,  as 
Miss  Hoffman  wrote,  "man  to  his  brother." 

The  original  plan  of  the  project  was  worked  out  at  the 
Museum.  Miss  Hoffman  wrote  of  the  Board  of  the  Museum, 
"a  very  alert  and  courageous  group  of  men.  To  keep  abreast 
of  the  times,  they  decided,  after  investigating  the  reasons  why 
the  anthropology  halls  in  all  countries  were  generally  empty 
and  the  snake  and  monkey  houses  always  crowded,  to  step  out 
of  the  tradition  and  take  a  long  chance.  They  felt  that  'The 
Races  of  Man'  should  look  dive,  and  be  actual  figures  that 
anyone  could  recognize  and  feel  to  be  authentic  ...  so  they 
decided  to  try  sculpture.  .  .  ." 

Though  the  conception  of  the  plan  belonged  to  the  Mu- 
seum, the  work  was  Miss  Hoffman's,  and  the  final  product 
bore  the  stamp  not  only  of  her  artistic  skill,  but  of  her  strong 
beliefs.  The  Museum  had  planned  to  hire  four  or  five  artists 
to  go  to  various  parts  of  the  world.  Miss  Hoffman  pointed 
out  that  such  an  arrangement  could  not  produce  a  consistent, 
balanced  hall.  She  also  pointed  out  the  potential  battles  in- 
volved in  fom-  or  five  artistic  temperaments.  She  won  her 
point.    She  was  couunissioned  alone  to  do  the  job. 

Again,  the  original  plan  called  for  plaster  figures.  Miss 
Hoffman  felt  strongly  about  this  point:  "I  signed   up  for 

Miss  Hoffman  in  her  studio 

"Daboa",  Dancing  girl  of  the  Sara  tribe.  Lake  Chad 

painted  plaster,  real  hair  and  glass  eyes,  knowing  absolutely 
that  within  six  months  this  part  of  the  contract  would  be 
changed  without  a  struggle."  She  had  two  of  the  figures  cast 
in  bronze  at  her  own  expense  in  Paris  and  when  Stanley  Field 
saw  them  at  her  studio,  that  part  of  the  contract  was  changed. 

She  spent  the  next  several  years  traveling  the  world  for 
the  Museum,  sketching  and  sculpting,  and  slowly  assembling 
the  exhibit.  Miss  Hoffman  had  considerable  skill  in  persuad- 
ing normally  shy  people  to  pose  for  her.  She  was  undaunted 
by  primitive  conditions,  and  overcame  inevitable  difficulties 
with  great  courage. 

Only  80  per  cent  completed,  the  Hall  of  Man  opened  on 
June  6,  1933,  at  the  time  of  the  opening  of  the  International 
World's  Fair  in  Chicago  called  the  Century  of  Progress.  More 
than  2,000,000  people  visited  the  Hall  in  its  first  year,  and 
countless  millions  since  that  time. 

When  Malvina  Hoffman  died  this  summer  in  her  home 
in  New  York,  at  81,  a  full  and  varied  life,  rich  with  achieve- 
ment, was  ended.  She  left  books,  sketches  and  statues.  Man- 
kind was  her  subject,  and  she  left  Mankind  perhaps  no  greater 
legacy  than  the  sense  of  the  diversity  and  unity  of  all  people 
to  be  found  in  Field  Museum's  Hall  of  Man. 


museum  taxonomy  serves  medical  research 


tHE  VISITOR,  an  epidemiologist  from  the  National  Institutes 
of  Health,  had  a  problem.  He  had  been  assigned  to  a 
team  of  United  States  medical  officers  investigating  a  high 
mortality  febrile  disease  attacking  man  in  the  Amazonian 
region  of  Bolivia.  The  disease,  a  hemorrhagic  fever,  had  been 
occurring  in  epidemic  fashion  for  three  years — since  1959. 

The  virus  causing  it  was  found  in  a  sample  of  human 
spleen  from  a  fatal  case  of  the  fever.  A  wild  rodent  reservoir 
of  the  virus  was  suspected.  My  visitor,  Dr.  Merle  Kuns, 
wanted  information  on  the  mammals,  particularly  the  ro- 
dents, of  Bolivia.  Little  is  known  of  Bolivian  rodents  but 
happily  much  of  it  is  contained  in  scientific  publications  of 
the  Field  Museum.  Dr.  Kuns  was  provided  with  the  litera- 
ture he  needed,  and  I  agreed  to  identify  the  samples  of  sus- 
pect animals  he  would  collect  in  Bolivia  and  send  on  to  the 

The  specimens  soon  began  to  come  in.  The  first  ship- 
ments of  hundreds  of  mice,  bats  and  other  kinds  of  small 
mammals  had  already  been  tested  and  had  proved  negative 
for  the  virus  of  hemorrhagic  fever.  Serological  tests  con- 
ducted in  virus  laboratories  on  the  associated  mites,  ticks,  lice 
and  fleas  were  also  negative.  The  break  came  in  1963,  when 
the  virus  was  isolated  from  two  field  mice  trapped  in  the  vil- 
lage of  San  Joaquin,  Beni.  These  mice,  which  I  identified  as 
Calomjs  callosus,  resemble  common  house  mice  {Mus  muscu- 
lus).  Like  them,  they  live  successfully  in  fields,  gardens,  houses 
and  towns.  Further  investigations  by  the  epidemiologists  re- 
vealed that  Calomys  callosus  was  a  natural  reservoir  of  the 
disease.  It  communicated  the  illness  to  humans  by  direct 
contamination  of  their  food,  water,  clothing  and  furnishings 
with  virus  e.xcreted  in  feces  or  urine.    Destruction  of  Calomys 

Page  4    SEPTEMBER 

callosus  living  in  houses  in  San  Joaquin  resulted  in  a  dramatic 
end  to  human  cases  of  hemorrhagic  fever. 

One  of  the  scientific  publications  of  the  Field  Museum 
used  by  the  Bolivian  Commission  in  their  investigations  of 
hemorrhagic  fever  was  a  taxonomic  revision  of  the  mice  of 
the  genus  Calomys.  The  treatise  contains  everything  known 
to  that  time  about  these  rodents,  including  habits,  preferences 
for  human  habitations,  ectoparasites,  geographic  distribution, 
distinctive  characters  and  keys  to  the  species.  Taxonomic 
works  of  this  kind  are  regularly  produced  by  the  Museum's 
zoologists.  Most  of  them  may  seem  abstruse  and  of  no  prac- 
tical value  today.  Tomorrow  they  may  be  crucial  in  tracking 
down  the  cause  of  an  epidemic  devastating  a  far-away  jungle 
land  or  identifying  the  agent  bringing  a  new  disease  into  our 

ZOONOSES. — Diseases  of  wild  animals  transmitted  to  man 
or  his  domestic  animals  are  called  zoonoses.  The  World  Health 
Organization  lists  over  100  zoonoses  and  more  are  being  added 
each  year.  A  classic  zoonosis  is  bubonic  plague  transmitted 
to  man  by  fleas  from  the  natural  reservoir  in  rodents.  Rabies, 
transmitted  by  the  bite  of  infected  dogs,  wolves,  bats  and 
other  animals,  is  another  example  of  a  zoonosis  which,  like 
Bolivian  hemorrhagic  fever,  does  not  involve  an  arthropod 

TRAVELING  TICKS.— Ticks  are  known  vectors  of  a  great 
variety  of  organisms  causing  diseases  in  man  and  domestic 
animals.    These  arthropods  may  not  travel  far  on  their  own 

Distribution  of  the  Corncrake,  Crex  cre.x.  These  birds  are  common  in  Egypt  in 
autumn  when  on  passage  Jrom  their  breeding  grounds  in  Europe  to  their  wintering 
grounds  in  Africa,  and  many  are  found  to  be  carrying  ticks  of  medical  importance. 

power,  but  they  can  be  intercontinental  travelers  when  at- 
tached to  migrating  birds.  Dr.  Harry  Hoogstraal,  a  Research 
Associate  of  Field  Museum  and  Scientist  with  the  United 
States  Naval  Medical  Research  Unit  Number  Three,  Cairo, 
Egypt,  examined  ticks  on  tens  of  thousands  of  migratory  birds 
captured  in  Egypt.  Associate  Curator  of  Birds  Melvin  Tray- 
lor  collaborated  by  providing  the  identifications  and  migra- 
tory patterns  of  the  birds.    These  investigations  revealed  that 

SEPTEMBER     Page  5 

European  and  northern  Asiatic  birds  migrating  south  to  trop- 
ical Africa  were  infested  with  ticks  from  their  northern  habi- 
tats, while  birds  returning  north  in  the  spring  carried  ticks 
from  their  southern  winter  quarters.  Nearly  all  air-borne 
ticks  were  immature.  The  species  of  ticks  proved  to  be  known 
reservoirs  or  vectors  of  many  diseases  afflicting  humans  and 
domestic  animals.  One  kind  transmits  Russian  spring-sum- 
mer encephalitis,  infectious  nephroso-nephritis  and  tulare- 
mia. Another  harbors  the  pathogen  causing  boutonneuse 
fever  or  African  tick  typhus,  a  disease  related  to  our  Rocky 
Mountain  spotted  fever.  Still  others  are  carriers  of  Q  fever 
and  of  brucellosis.  Diseases  of  domestic  animals  spread  by 
tick  sp)ecies  found  on  migrating  birds  include  Rickettsia  fever, 
bovine  babiosis,  anaplasmosis,  tick  paralysis,  Gonderia,  and 
many  others.  Transportation  of  ticks  far  beyond  the  geo- 
graphic limits  of  their  normal  habitat  may  explain  the  sudden 
and  explosive  appearance  of  tick-transmitted  diseases  in  pre- 
viously uninfested  regions  along  the  routes  of  migrating  birds. 
The  most  difficult  problems  in  the  investigations  of  such  dis- 
eases, according  to  Hoogstraal  and  his  associates,  are  the 
ta.xonomic.  Correct  identifications  are  crucial : — of  ticks,  par- 
ticularly in  the  immature  stages,  bird  hosts,  and  viruses. 

work  on  wild  animal  reservoirs  and  vectors  of  human  dis- 
eases is  conducted  by  many  governments,  and  they  maintain 

in  their  own  broadly  based  research  programs,  some  of  which 
include  field  studies  of  host-parasite  relationships.  The  \V.  S. 
and  J.  K.  Street  Expedition  to  Afghanistan  of  1965  returned 
to  the  Museum  with  more  than  2,000  specimens  of  mammals 
and  over  10,000  samples  of  the  mites,  ticks,  lice,  fleas  and 
batflies  found  on  them.  A  medical  entomologist  of  the  .Amer- 
ican University  of  Beirut,  Dr.  Robert  E.  Lewis,  participated 
in  the  .Afghan  Expedition.  The  Museum's  expedition  to  Iran 
in  1962-1963,  also  led  by  the  Streets,  collected  over  1,700 
specimens  of  mammals  with  their  assorted  ectoparasites.  The 
ectoparasites  are  being  studied  by  leading  authorities  at  sci- 
entific institutions  scattered  over  the  world.  Mr.  Douglas 
Lay,  the  mammalogist  of  the  Iranian  expedition,  has  under- 
taken a  taxonomic  revision  of  certain  species  of  gerbils  col- 
lected on  the  expedition.  Gerbils  are  small  rodents  of  Asia 
and  Africa  and  important  resers'oirs  of  bubonic  plague. 

Specimens  brought  back  in  recent  years  by  Field  Museum 
expeditions  to  Borneo,  Malaya,  Philippines,  Sudan,  Peru, 
Colombia,  Surinam,  Guatemala,  Panama  and  many  other 
lands,  make  our  collections  of  ectoparasitic  arthropods  among 
the  finest  in  the  world.  The  collections  of  fleas,  mites  and 
ticks  are  outstanding,  and  the  batfly  collection  is  the  largest 
anywhere.  Dr.  Rupert  Wenzel,  Curator  of  Insects  and  an 
outstanding  authority  on  batflies,  has  edited  and  is  now  see- 
ing through  press  a  weighty  volume  entitled  "Ectoparasites 

Left:  Associate  Curator  Xlelvin  Traylor 
sorting  a  shipment  of  Asiatic  birds.  The 
geographic  distribution  and  migrating  route 
of  each  species  will  be  determined  from  the 
locality  and  dale  of  capture  recorded  on  the 
label  of  each  specimen.  Right:  Shaw's 
gerbil  (Meriones  shawi)  from  Egypt. 
One  oj  several  kinds  of  gerbils  known  to  be 
reservoirs  of  bubonic  plague.  Study  of  the 
origin,  evolution  and  dispersal  of  gerbils  is 
one  of  many  Museum  research  projects.^ 

COVER :  This  month's  cover  shows  a  se- 
ries of  study-skins  of  Callomys  callosus, 
prepared  in  the  field  by  medical  workers  for 
the  Public  Health  Service  in  San  Joaquin, 
Bolivia.  The  little  rodents,  identified  by  the 
author  of  this  article,  were  found  to  be  reser- 
voirs of  Bolivian  Hemorrhagic  Fever. 
Their  control  prodiued  a  dramatic  end  to  the 

excellent  cooperation  and  exchange  of  communication  with 
scientific  agencies  with  taxonomic  capabilities.  Early  last 
year  I  received  a  letter  from  an  epidemiologist  in  British  Hon- 
duras employed  by  the  Ministry  of  Overseas  Development  of 
the  British  Government.  He  was  investigating  mammalian 
hosts  and  insect  vectors  of  Leishmaniasis,  and  wanted  some 
small  rodent  hosts  identified.  I  gladly  did  this  for  him.  More 
recendy,  several  s{>ecies  of  mice  susp>ected  or  implicated  in 
the  transmission  of  sylvatic  diseases  in  Colombia  were  sent 
to  me  for  identification  by  Rockefeller  Foundation  virologists 
conducting  the  field  investigations.  There  is  nothing  unusual 
about  this.  Samples  of  small  mammals  are  sent  here  for 
identification  from  many  parts  of  the  world. 

The  Museum's  identification  service  is  a  voluntary  con- 
tribution.   The  Museum's  biologists  are  primarily  interested 

of  Panama."  This  will  be  a  museum  publication  comprising 
contributions  by  twent\-  of  the  foremost  authorities  in  their 
fields.  Cost  of  much  of  the  research  and  of  publication  was 
supported  by  the  United  States  Army  Medical  Research  and 
Development  Command. 

Interest  of  medical  entomologists  in  the  ectoparasites  of 
Panama  began  with  the  classical  studies  of  malaria  and  yel- 
low fever  during  the  building  of  the  Panama  Canal.  Most 
early  investigations  of  arthropod-borne  diseases  in  Panama 
were  directed  toward  establishment  of  a  healthy  environment 
in  the  tropics  for  man  and  domestic  animals.  The  forthcom- 
ing volume  "Ectoparasites  of  Panama,"  deals  more  fimda- 
mentally  with  all  known  ectoparasites  of  Panamanian  land 
mammals  and  with  the  relationships  between  parasites  and 
their  hosts. 

Paged    SEPTE.MBER 

BATS  AND  RABIES.— Bats  are  also  reservoirs  of  diseases 
afflicting  man  and  domestic  animals.  The  bloodsucking  or 
vampire  bats  are  the  most  important  vectors  of  rabies  through- 
out Latin  America.  Human  deaths  from  bat  rabies  have 
been  recorded.  In  some  parts  of  the  American  tropics,  cattle 
losses  from  epidemics  of  this  disease  have  been  disastrous. 
Vampire  bats  may  also  transmit  rabies  to  other  kinds  of  bats 
with  which  they  roost.  However  the  may  have  been 
transmitted,  rabid  insectivorous  bats  have  been  observed  in 
the  United  States,  Canada,  Europe  and  India,  places  where 
vampires  do  not  occur.  The  late  Colin  Campbell  .Sanborn, 
the  Museum's  Curator  of  Mammals  until  his  retirement  in 
1955,  was  a  world  authority  on  bats  and  a  consultant  to  the 
National  Institutes  of  Health  in  this  specialty.  His  taxonomic 
revisions  of  certain  New  and  Old  World  species  and  genera  of 
bats  published  in  the  Museum's  zoological  series,  are  valuable 
tools  in  the  study  and  control  of  bat  rabies. 

Many  human  diseases  are  studied  imder  controlled  conditions 
by  using  tame  laboratory  animals  such  as  white  mice,  rats, 
hamsters,  guinea  pigs,  rabbits  and  chicks.  These  animals  are 
usually  of  known  strains  and,  in  any  case,  present  no  taxo- 
nomic problems.  In  recent  years,  however,  there  has  been 
an  increasing  use  of  captured  wild  monkeys  as  laboratory  ani- 
mals, many  of  them  unidentified  as  to  species.    A  large  num- 

periment  cannot  be  repeated  or  controlled  if  its  most  impor- 
tant ingredient,  the  experimental  animal,  is  an  uncontrolled 
variable  or  if  its  precise  identity  is  imknown. 

The  medical  scientist  or  biochemist  is  neither  trained  nor 
disposed  to  deal  with  intraspccific  variables  and  the  taxo- 
nomic, zoogcographic  and  ecological  problems  posed  by  the 
wild  caught  animals  used  in  his  experiments.  The  field  nat- 
uralist and  museum  taxonomist,  often  one  and  the  same  per- 
son, is  not  only  so  trained  but  is  largely  engaged  in  solving 
such  problems.  In  some  cases,  solutions  to  particular  prob- 
lems are  already  available  in  published  taxonomic  revisions. 
In  the  case  of  nonhuman  primates,  however,  what  is  known 
falls  far  short  of  meeting  the  explosive  and  overwhelming  de- 
mands for  information. 

During  the  last  decade  the  Field  Museum  has  been  alone 
among  North  American  institutions  in  conducting  basic  re- 
search on  the  taxonomy  of  living  species  of  monkeys.  Cog- 
nizant of  the  importance  of  this  work  to  human  welfare,  the 
National  Institutes  of  Health,  particularly  the  Cancer  Insti- 
tute, are  contributing  to  the  support  of  the  Museum's  research 
in  primate  taxonomy.  Current  projects  at  the  Field  Museum 
include  a  monograph  on  marmosets  (a  family  of  small  trop- 
ical American  monkeys  widely  used  as  laboratory  animals) 
and  a  taxonomic  revision  of  the  Old  World  group  of  monkeys 
known  as  macaques.  The  medically  and  pharmaceutically 
important  rhesus  is  a  member  of  this  group. 

Left:  The  bloodsucking  or 
vampire  bat  (Dcsmodus  ro- 
tundus)  is  the  most  important 
vector  of  rabies  throughout  Latin 
America.  Right:  The  rhesus 
macaque  (Macaca  mulatta) 
is  widely  used  as  an  experi- 
mental animal  in  behavioral, 
biomedical  and  pharmaceutical 
research.  The  classification  of 
macaque  monkey's  is  being  re- 
vised by  Museum  Associate 
Jack  Fooden. 

ber  of  investigators  believe  that  use  of  nonhuman  primates  as 
experimental  animals  offers  a  more  direct  approach  to  solu- 
tions of  some  of  man's  own  biological  problems.  The  simi- 
larities between  man  and  nonhuman  primates  are  real,  and 
stem  from  a  common  and  not  very  remote  ancestry.  The 
history  of  primates  embraces  the  story  of  man's  beginning, 
the  evolution  of  his  specializations,  notably  the  ability  to  rea- 
son, his  behavior  patterns,  the  history  of  his  parasites,  the 
origins  of  some  of  his  diseases,  the  manifestations  of  their 
symptoms,  and  responses  to  treatment.  The  more  man  learns 
about  his  primate  relatives,  the  more  he  learns  about  himself. 
Least  known  among  nonhuman  primates  are  the  smaller 
monkeys  which  are  preferred  as  laboratory  animals.  The 
need  for  correct  identification  of  each  of  the  many  kinds  of 
small  monkeys  used  in  medical  research  is  obvious.    An  ex- 

Museum  scientists  do  not  study  illnesses  of  men  or  ani- 
mals. Museum  zoologists  study  and  collect  animals  in  the 
field  and  classify  them  in  the  museum  laboratory.  Sometimes 
the  examination  of  only  a  fragment  of  the  form  is  sufficient  for 
purposes  of  identification  and  classification  of  little  known  or 
extinct  organisms.  In  the  case  of  common  living  species 
nearly  everything  that  can  be  learned  about  them  may  be 
taken  into  account.  Knowledge  gained  by  the  taxonomist 
in  classifying  animals  serves  the  biomedical  investigator  in  the 
control  and  interpretation  of  research  using  experimental  ani- 
mals. In  turn,  what  the  medical  investigator  learns  about 
susceptibilities,  immunities  and  other  physiological  charac- 
teristics of  his  experimental  animals,  serves  the  taxonomist 
in  perfecting  his  system  of  classification. 

SEPTEMBER     Page  7 




Tea  Pluckers 
Ralph  Gerstle's  'Ceylon' 

i   :1 

Basalt  Columns 
Robert  Davis'  'Iceland' 

Lake  Ohrid 
Gene  Wianckos  'Balkans' 


Philip  Walkers  'Switzerland' 

This  year's  Fall  Lecture  Series  offers  film  studies  on  the  people,  the  history, 
and  the  natural  riches  of  many  areas  around  the  world.  The  nine  films,  all  in 
color  and  all  with  personal  commentary  by  well-known  lecturers,  are  presented 
by  the  Museum  as  the  126th  Series  of  Illustrated  Free  Lectures.  They  will 
be  held  in  the  James  Simpson  Theatre  of  Field  Museum  of  Natural  History  at 
2:30  P.M.  on  successive  Saturday  afternoons  from  October  1st  through  Novem- 
ber 26th.    Reserved  seats  for  Museum  members  will  be  held  until  2:25. 

October  1 — Wildlife  at  Your  Doorstep     Howard  L.  Orians 

A  film  that  brings  into  focus  the  exciting  and  delightful  world 
of  nature  to  be  foimd  all  about  us.  Rather  than  ranging  far 
afield,  the  camera  seeks  out  ever-present  wonders  close  at  hand. 

October  8 — Incredible  Iceland     Robert  Davis 

An  amazing  land  enjoying  surprisingly  temperate  climate, 
democratic  government,  and  a  high  standard  of  living.  Nat- 
ural features  such  as  glaciers,  waterfalls  and  volcanoes  abound : 
— the  film  includes  a  sequence  on  the  creation  of  a  new  island 
by  marine  eruption. 

October  15 — Field  Museu.m  Expedition  to  Afgh.'\nist.\n  William  and  Janice  Street 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Street,  Field  Associates  of  the  Museum,  report 
on  their  recent  zoological  expedition  to  Afghanistan,  with 
color  slides. 

October  22 — Morocco     Nicol  Smith 

From  the  Moslem  Holy  City  of  Moulay  Idris  to  the  gleaming 
new  buildings  of  Casablanca,  this  film  covers  the  colorful  life 
of  the  markets,  oases,  and  Islamic  and  Roman  ruins. 

October  29 — Switzerland     Philip  Walker 

Quaint  charm,  sophisticated  elegance,  the  grandeur  of  the 
Alps  and  the  beauty  of  lakes — all  contribute  to  this  fine  film. 
Features  the  only  complete  authentic  motion  pictures  ever 
made  of  a  free  balloon  flight  over  the  Alps. 

November  5 — Ceylon     Ralph  Gerstie 

The  richness  of  tropical  jungle  and  seacoast,  the  heritage  of 
Buddhism  in  ancient  monument  and  current  practice,  and 
the  interesting  aspects  of  the  local  tea,  coconut  and  mining 
industries  presented  by  an  award-winning  film-maker. 

November  12 — Mysteries  of  the  Balkan  World     Gene  Wiancko 

Delves  into  the  fascinating  past  and  colorful  present  of  the 
people  of  Macedonia,  Montenegro  and  Albania's  mountains. 
Presents  the  Gypsies,  the  Shyptars  and  the  "Children  of  the 
Eagle,"  and  their  confrontations  with  "modern  civilization." 

November  19 — Ojibw.ay  Country     David  Jarden 

Combines  rugged  adventure  with  a  look  into  the  unusual  life 
of  the  Ojibway  Indians  who  live  in  a  Northern  Ontario  wilder- 
ness which  has  changed  little  for  centuries.  The  film  is  based 
on  a  canoe  trip  made  by  photographer-narrator  David  Jarden 
in  company  with  a  family  of  Ojibway  Indians. 

November  26— Only  in  Portugal     Gerald  Hooper 

Features  on  the  spot  sound  recording  in  addition  to  live  nar- 
>  ration.    Covers  the  sights  of  Lisbon,  the  resort  city  of  Estoril, 

religious  shrines  and  native  wine,  craft  and  cork  industries, 
plus  a  capsule  view  of  Portuguese  history. 

Nicol  Smith's  'Morocco' 

A  new  Zoology  exhibit 
in  which  the  tongues  of  certain  birds  are  used 

to  illustrate  the  biological  principle  of 


Austin  L.  Rand,  Chief  Curator,  Zoology 

A  MONKEY-FACED  owl  and  an  owl-faced  monkey  of  Africa 
are  two  "look-alikes,"  whose  convergence  in  physiog- 
nomy is  probably  due  to  accident.  The  rattlesnake's  rattle 
and  the  tuft  of  quills  on  the  tip  of  the  tail  of  the  African  porcu- 
pine are  both  shaken  noisily,  a  useful  convergence  to  warn 
away  enemies.  The  brush-tongued  honey  opossum  and  the 
brush-tongucd  lory,  both  of  Australia,  both  use  the  peculiar 
tongue  to  feed  on  nectar  and  pollen  in  flowers,  a  convergence 
in  form  and  function  to  use  a  special  type  of  food. 

The  conventional  view  of  evolution  is  one  of  divergence, 
radiating  to  adapt  to  available  habitats.  But  when  the  orig- 
inal radiation  continues  in  several  phyletic  lines,  convergence 
may  occur.  Reptiles  and  mammals  are  branches  of  a  com- 
mon stock.  When  each  evolved  forms  for  land,  air,  and  water, 
the  reptiles  produced  four-footed  lizards,  fish-like  Ichthyo- 
saurus (now  extinct),  and  winged  pterodactyls  (also  extinct). 
Mammals  came  up  with  four-footed  mice,  winged  bats,  and 
fish-like  whales.    This  is  convergence  on  a  grand  scale. 

Severa^  groups  of  small  birds  sip  nectar  through  a  tubular 
tongue,  much  as  we  might  drink  milk  through  a  straw.  Com- 
monly, the  bird  tongue  is  flat,  and  just  long  enough  to  fit  into 
the  bill.  The  hummingbirds  of  the  Americas,  the  sunbirds  of 
Africa  and  southern  Asia,  and  the  honeyeaters  of  the  Austra- 
lian region  are  not  closely  related,  yet  each  has  developed 
an  elongated,  slender  bill  for  probing  into  flowers,  and  an 
elongated,  slender,  extensible  tongue  of  which  the  edges  are 
rolled  up  to  provide  tubes  through  which  each  can  drink 
nectar.  These,  hummingbirds,  sunbirds,  and  honeyeaters, 
and  their  convergence  in  relation  to  flower-feeding,  are  the 
subject  of  a  new  exhibit  at  Field  Museum. 

Though  each  group  has  a  long,  tubular  tongue,  the  de- 
tails of  structure  are  different  in  each  case.  In  the  humming- 
birds, the  tongue  is  split  lengthwise  and  the  outer  margins  are 
curled  down  to  form  two  separate  tubes  that  lie  side  by  side. 
In  the  sunbirds,  the  edges  of  the  tongue  curl  up  to  meet  or 
overlap  to  give  a  single  tube  except  at  the  tip  where  it  is  split 

to  form  two  tubes.  In  the  honeyeaters,  the  central  part  of  the 
tongue  forms  a  single  tube,  as  in  the  sunbirds,  but  the  tip  is 
divided  into  four  parts,  each  fringed  out  to  give  a  brush-like 
tip,  a  structure  lacking  in  the  other  two  groups.  Such  fine 
differences  in  detail  support  other  differences  in  structure, 
habits,  and  range,  so  that  these  birds  form  three  unrelated 
groups,  and  the  gross  similarities  in  tongue  are  ones  of  con- 

It  is  all  very  well  to  dwell  on  a  small  part  of  these  birds, 
the  bill  and  tongue,  to  illustrate  a  biological  principle.  To 
divide  an  animal  into  many  parts  and  distribute  them  among 
specialists  for  study  is  the  rule  today,  and  is  necessary  for 
understanding  processes  and  principles.  But  we  must  re- 
member to  put  the  parts  together  again,  to  see  what  the  whole 
bird  is  like.  In  line  with  this,  a  brief  synopsis  of  each  group 

HUMMINGBIRDS.  All  300  spccics  live  only  in  the  New  World. 
They  include  the  smallest  of  birds,  and  this  feature  was 
stressed  when  they  were  first  introduced  into  the  literature. 
This  was  in  1525,  by  Oviedo,  Governor  of  Hispaniola,  in  his 
"Hystoria  general  de  las  Indias,"  published  in  Toledo.  He 
called  the  hmnmingbirds  paxaro  mosquito,  a  name  that  still 
survives  in  the  French  oiseau-mouche. 

The  brilliance  of  the  iridescence  is  no  less  remarkable. 
Many  bright  colors  on  birds  are  likened  to  the  sheen  of  bur- 
nished metals:  steel,  copper,  bronze  or  gold.  But  imagina- 
tive writers  have  likened  the  hummingbird's  brightness  to 
that  of  polished  jewels.  This  is  reflected  in  the  gem-words 
incorporated  in  their  popular  names:  emerald,  sapphire,  gar- 
net, berylline,  amethyst,  ruby,  and  topaz. 

The  flight  of  hummingbirds  is  imique.  They  can  hover, 
stationary  in  the  air,  move  into  a  flower,  or  fly  backwards 
out  of  it,  with  equal  facility.  This  is  due  to  an  unusual  socket 
arrangement  where  wing  bones  join  those  of  the  shoulder. 
The  wing  tip  moves  back  and  forth  in  a  sculling,  figure-of- 

SEPTEMBER     Page  9 

Models  of  typical  bird  tongue  and  flowerfeeding  tongue,  from  new  exhibit 

eight  pattern,  with  both  forward  and  backward  strokes  being 
power  strokes.  With  such  unusual  development  of  flight,  it 
is  not  surprising  that  the  feet  are  tiny,  incapable  of  locomo- 
tion, and  used  only  for  perching  on  twigs. 

Of  course,  not  all  hummingbirds  are  small.  The  largest 
are  as  large  as  sparrows.  Nor  are  all  species  brilliant,  either, 
and  in  those  that  are,  it  is  the  male  that  wears  the  vivid  plum- 
age. Correlated  with  the  pronounced  sexual  dimorphism, 
these  birds  are  polygamous,  and  the  female  assumes  all  duties 
of  family  life. 

The  neat  cup-nest  and  the  two  pure  white  eggs  are  won- 
ders of  miniaturization.  The  female  feeds  the  helpless  nest- 
lings by  injecting  them  with  food,  thrusting  her  long  bill  well 
down  their  throats. 

One  species,  the  ruby-throated  hummingbird,  nests  as  far 
north  as  southern  Canada.  But  a  flower-feeder  would  fare 
ill  in  a  northern  winter.  The  American  Tropics  is  where 
most  species  live  and  the  ruby-throat  migrates  there  for  the 
winter.  Despite  their  small  size,  they  make  the  more  than 
500-mile  crossing  of  the  Gulf  of  Mexico. 

Hummingbirds  as  a  group  have  their  closest  relatives  in 
swifts  and  perhaps  nightjars,  as  indicated  by  structural  de- 
tails which  are  as  unusual  as  their  habits  and  appearance. 
A  wide  gap  separates  them  from  our  familiar  songbirds. 

SUNBiRDS.  Their  headquarters  are  in  Africa,  where  most  of 
the  100  species  live,  but  there  are  a  fair  number  in  trop- 
ical Asia,  and  two  adventurous  far-colonizing  species  have 
island-hopped  recently  (geologically  speaking)  through  the 
East  Indies  to  reach  the  Australian  area. 

Sunbirds  are  a  group  of  songbirds  generally  small,  of 
warbler  size,  that  hop  and  flit  through  the  foliage,  and  their 
notable  features,  aside  from  flower  adaptation,  are  in  the 
bright,  even  gaudy,  colors  of  the  males.  They  have  some 
iridescent  patches,  especially  metallic  greens  and  blues,  but 
much  of  their  brightness  is  due  to  non-lustrous  reds,  blacks, 
yellows,  and  purples. 

Most  of  the  females  are  dull,  often  olive-green,  but  despite 
this  sexual  dimorphism  the  birds  sing,  form  pairs,  and  both 
sexes  may  take  part  in  family  duties.  The  nests  are  rather 
unusual.    Some  are  oval,  pensile  structures  with  an  entrance 

at  the  side  under  a  little  "porch-roof."  Other  nests,  those  of 
the  "spider  hunters,"  are  stitched  tailor-bird  fashion,  to  the 
underside  of  a  leaf.  As  with  many  songbirds,  the  eggs  are 

HONEYEATERS.  An  early  songbird  colonist  reached  Aus- 
tralia before  its  competitors  did  and  found  a  flower-rich 
habitat  vacant.  It  evolved  some  160  species  to  take  advan- 
tage of  this  vacant  food  niche,  just  as  certain  brush-tongued 
lories  and  certain  brush-tongued  opossums  did.  While  many 
flower-feeding  hummingbirds  and  sunbirds  evolved  bright 
colors  to  rival  the  flowers  at  which  they  fed,  so  that  one  is 
tempted  to  suggest  a  further  correlation,  the  honeyeaters, 
which  feed  much  like  sunbirds,  did  not,  and  bright  colors  are 
an  exception.  The  breeding  biology  is  that  of  typical  song- 
birds, with  pairing,  a  cup  nest,  spotted  eggs,  and  both  sexes 
sharing  nest  duties.  That  the  honeyeaters  have  been  success- 
ful there  is  no  doubt,  if  one  judges  by  their  numbers  of  species 


•"v  .  ^i 

':^   ICO 





Models  and  cross-sections  of  the  tongues  of  the 
Hummingbird,  Sunbird  and  Honeyeater 

Page  10     SEPTEMBER 

and  abundance.  In  a  country  where  there  was  little  compe- 
tition they  radiated  more  in  size  than  did  either  of  the  other 
groups  we  have  discussed,  and  as  well  as  tiny  species  there 
are  some  that  are  as  large  as  jays  and  feed  in  part  on  fruit. 
But  all  retain  the  four-part  tip  to  their  tongue,  indicative  of 
their  common  ancestry. 

The  idea  for  this  exhibit  grew  out  of  a  luncheon  conver- 
sation with  Miss  Frances  Hooper  of  the  Women's  Board  of 
the  Museum  in  which  we  discussed  Miss  Hooper's  fascination 
with  the  beauty,  small  size,  diversity,  and  bizarre  habits  of 
hummingbirds.  A  plan  for  an  exhibit  of  hummingbirds  and 
their  ecological  counterparts  on  other  continents  developed. 
Now  we  have  a  permanent  exhibit  illustrating  the  Biological 
Principle  of  Convei-gence  on  view  in  Boardman  Conover  Hall, 
Hall  21. 

The  scope  of  the  thinking  involved  in  planning  this  ex- 
hibit went  far  beyond  the  birds  and  flowers  actually  involved. 
Since  starting  this  exhibit  I  have  given  a  lecture  on  conver- 
gence for  a  University  of  Chicago  class,  and  as  I  have  indi- 
cated above,  forms  as  diverse  as  fossil  reptiles  and  honey 
opossums  can  be  used  as  examples.  Beyond  that  I  have  sur- 
veyed the  whole  subject  of  nectar  adaptation  in  songbirds  and 
its  importance  in  evaluating  taxonomic  evidence.  A  research 
report  on  this  entitled,  "The  Flower-Adapted  Tongue  of  a 
Tiinalinae  Bird  and  Its  Implications,"  is  approaching  publi- 
cation in  Field  Museum's  series  Fieldiana:  ^oology. 

When  we  install  a  proposed  hall  devoted  to  "Ecology  and 
Evolution,"  we  hope  to  devote  a  section  to  exhibiting  the 
whole  scope  of  convergence,  how  similar  adaptations  in  un- 
related groups  result  in  "look-alikes." 



Field  Museum  Library  this  month  has  a  special  exhibit  of 
rare  books  from  the  Edward  E.  Ayer  Collection,  relating  also 
to  birds.  Mr.  Ayer  was  the  first  President  of  the  Board  of 
Trustees  of  Field  Museum,  and  among  his  first  acts  as  Presi- 
dent was  the  presentation  of  his  ornithological  library. 

Among  the  books  on  display  is  a  first  edition  of  ^  Natural 
History  of  Uncommon  Birds  by  the  noted  English  naturalist 
George  Edwards  (1693-1773).  The  book  has  many  colored 
plates  and  descriptions  of  the  birds  in  French  and  English. 
It  is  even  more  noteworthy  because  it  once  belonged  to  the 
Welsh  naturalist  Thomas  Pennant,  and  has  many  marginal 
notes  in  his  hand. 

A  curious  old  work,  //  Canto  de  gV Avgelli,  by  Antonio  Valli 
da  Todi,  published  in  1601,  is  also  displayed.  The  book,  on 
songbirds  and  methods  of  catching  and  keeping  them  is  illus- 
trated with  woodcuts,  signed  "Johannes  Maivs,"  and  beauti- 
fully bound  in  crimson  morocco,  with  gold  tooling. 

The  exhibit  was  prepared  by  Carl  Zangerl,  a  summer 
assistant  in  the  library.  It  represents  only  a  small  part  of 
the  Ayer  collection.  Probably  no  other  branch  of  science  has 
produced  so  many  sumptuous  and  profusely  illustrated  books 
as  ornithology.  Their  cost  is  usually  prohibitive  to  all  save 
the  largest  and  finest  libraries.  It  has  been  Field  Museum's 
good  fortune  since  its  inception  to  possess  many  of  the  finest 
works  on  birds. 

LAND  HO     Voyager  Brenton  enters  Burnham  Harbor 

The  Sierra  Sagrada,  a  curious,  jury-rigged  craft,  made  of 
two  South  American  Indian  dugout  canoes  connected  by  a 
hand  made  wooden  frame,  arrived  recently  in  Burnham 
Harbor,  near  Field  Museum,  escorted  by  the  Chicago  Police 
boat  Morris  Friedman.  A  Chicago  adventurer,  Francis  Bren- 
ton, 39,  had  piloted  the  vessel  from  Cartagena,  Colombia, 
across  the  Caribbean  and  the  Gulf,  up  the  Mississippi  and 
Illinois  Rivers,  and  practically  to  the  Museum's  front  door. 

Brenton  had  been  commissioned  some  months  ago  by 
Chief  Curator  of  Anthropology  Donald  Collier  to  purchase 
a  dugout  canoe  for  the  Museum's  collection.  Brenton  bought 
two,  one  a  26-footer  at  Santa  Marta,  Colombia,  and  a  22- 
footer  made  by  the  Cuna  Indians  of  San  Bias  Islands,  Panama. 
They  were  made  from  the  hollowed-out  trunks  of  the  tropical 
espave  (Anacardium  excelsum).  Brenton's  mode  of  delivery  was 
unusual.  He  fashioned  the  masts  and  the  wooden  framework 
connecting  the  two  boats  himself,  with  only  a  saw  and  an  ax. 
Then,  he  provisioned  the  Sierra  Sagrada  and  set  sail  for  Chi- 
cago. 81  days  and  3,000  miles  later  astonished  Museum  offi- 
cials greeted  Brenton  at  the  Burnham  Yacht  Club.  The  most 
dangerous  part  of  the  trip  was  skirting  Hurricane  Alma  in  the 
Gulf  of  Mexico,  but  the  most  unpleasant  period,  said  Bren- 
ton, who  rather  enjoyed  the  brush  with  Alma,  was  a  period  of 
24  days  of  dead  calm. 

The  canoes  have  been  set  up  in  Stanley  Field  Hall  exactly 
as  they  were  during  Brenton's  voyage,  and  have  attracted 
thousands  of  viewers. 

Sierra  Sagrada  appears  to  mean  "Sacred  Mountains"; 
however,  its  captain  has  assured  Field  Museum  that  sierra  in 
American  Spanish  also  means  fish,  and  in  Colombia  it  is 
widely  used  to  mean  "mackerel."  The  name  of  the  craft, 
then,  given  it  by  the  builder,  is  "Holy  Mackerel."  Most 
Bulletin  readers  will  probably  concur  in  that  sentiment. 

YO  HEAVE  HO  Museum  canoe  specialists  work  with  a  will 

SEPTEMBER     Page  11 


w.,  :''^ 






r^^^  ' 



•^-  -,v 



Flossmoor  dig 

is  climax  of 

Summer  Program 

Learning  by  doing,  as  well  as  through  textbook  and  classroom  lecture,  made  Field 
Museum's  Summer  School  in  Anthropology  a  complete  educational  experience  for 
the  25  specially-qualified  high  school  age  students  who  participated.  The  excite- 
ment of  discover)-  gave  an  added  fillip  to  the  whole  process,  when  during  a  week- 
long  dig  near  Flossmoor  the  youngsters  turned  up  arrow  and  spear  points,  pounding 
stones,  deer  and  wildfowl  bones  and  clear-cut  dark  circles  left  by  lodgepoles  in 
yellow  sub-soil  clay.  Stuart  Struever,  of  the  Department  of  Anthropology  of  North- 
western University,  who  with  Museum  staff  members  Harriet  Smith  and  Edith 
Fleming  headed  the  "dig,"  told  the  youngsters  that  their  exciting  finds  had  been 
of  Indian  winter  communities  during  the  period  1450-1650  .■\.d.  Excavations  were 
on  a  meadow  near  Butterfield  Creek,  in  an  area  soon  to  be  bulldozed  in  preparation 
for  housing  construction.  The  25  young  archaeologists  and  their  instructors  worked 
in  broiling  sun  and  soaking  downpour  with  only  the  shelter  of  a  nearby  Norway 
maple  (see  above  site  photo) .  They  worked  first  with  shovel,  then  below  the  six- 
inch  plough  line,  gently  and  delicately  by  trowel.  All  soil  was  screened  in  search 
of  artifacts  and  evidence  of  Indian  occupation  (in  photo  from  left,  Theresa  Gentry, 
Mary  Doria,  John  Simon,  Kevin  Sullivan  and  Susan  Teshima).  Shown  measuring 
the  location  of  a  posthole  (note  dark  circle  in  the  clay)  are  Heidi  Thompson  and 
James  Demopulos.  Miss  Miriam  Wood,  Chief,  Raymond  Foundation,  Field  Mu- 
seum, directed  the  program,  which  was  supported  by  National  Science  Foundation. 


September  through  November  F.-vll  Journey  "M.asks,"'  features  American  In- 
dian masks,  showing  through  exhibits  how  they  were  made  and  used  for  healing, 
rainmaking  and  inspiring  fear.  Direction  sheets  for  this  self-guided  tour  are 
available  at  the  Museum  Information  Desk. 

September  Meeting   Illinois  Orchid  Society.     September  18  at  2  p..\!. 

The  Annual  Orchid  Show,  November  19-20,  at  Field  Mu- 
seum will  be  discussed. 
Open  to  members  and  interested  non-members. 

WORKSHOP  {continued from  page  2) 


10:30  .A.M.  forages  10-13 
Understanding  the  Earth's  Features 
Ernest  Roscoe 

A  movie  reviews  the  changes  which  have 
occurred  on  the  earth's  surface  over  the 
last  half  billion  years.  Work  in  exhibi- 
tion halls  covers  processes  which  are  go- 
ing on  all  around  us  to  change  the  earth's 

1 :30  P.M.  for  ages  10-13 
Life  Through  the  Ages 
Ernest  Roscoe 

Two  of  the  topics  covered  in  this  work- 
shop will  include:  how  plants  and  ani- 
mals become  fossils;  how  to  identify  the 
major  groups.  Emphasis  on  those  groups 
found  in  the  Chicago  region  will  be 
stressed.  Session  will  include  a  movie 
and  work  with  specimens. 

10:30  A.w.  and  1 :30  p.m.  forages  8  and  9 
What  Is  It?    Animal  or  Vegetable? 
Marie  Svoboda 

This  workshop  will  ask  boys  and  girls  the 
question,  "What  is  it .  .  .?"  A  grab  bag 
filled  with  mysterious  objects  to  be 
touched  or  tasted  or  smelled  will  be  the 
main  attraction.  "No  fair  peeking!" 
Boys  and  girls  who  participate  need  no 
paper  or  pencil — only  hands,  noses,  and 
taste  buds.  A  short  tour  in  the  exhibi- 
tion halls  will  be  included. 



CHICAGO.  ILLINOIS  60605  AC.  312,  922-9410 

E.  Leland  Webber,  Director 


Edward  G.  JVash,  Managing  Editor 
Beatrice  Paul,  Associate  Editor 

Page  12     SEPTEMBER 


Volume  37,  Number  10  October,  1966 


The  station  is  some  7,000  feet  above  sea  level,  and 
it  is  sometimes  near  40°  as  the  men  shave  and  pre- 
pare for  the  day's  worl<.  By  lunch  time,  the  desert  air 
has  heated  to  98°  in  the  shade — if  there  were  shade. 


High  ability  undergraduate  students  for  the  last  two  years  have  par- 
ticipated in  a  summer 
school  of  practical  and 
theoretical  archaeology 
at  Field  Museum's  Field 
Station,  Vernon,  Arizo- 
na. This  past  summer, 
photographer  James 
Ballard  spent  eight 
weeks  working  at  the 
Station.  In  this  issue, 
the  BULLETIN  presents 
his  photographic  report 
on  life  at  Vernon. 

Chief  Curator  Emeritus  of  Anthropology  Paul  S.  Martin  has  worked  in  the  American  south- 
west for  nearly  forty  years.  His  published  reports  on  archaeological  sites  in  New  Mexico, 
Colorado,  and  most  recently,  eastern  Arizona  have  filled  a  dozen  volumes  in  the  Museum's 
scientific  series  Fieldiana:  Anthropology.  Martin  has  always  had  students  at  his  dig,  many 
of  whom  are  now  prominent  on  Anthropology  faculties  across  the  country.  A  National 
Science  Foundation  grant  two  years  ago  allowed  him  to  adopt  a  more  formal  educational 
program  in  connection  with  his  research  into  Southwestern  prehistory.  This  year,  16  under- 
graduates and  graduates  came  to  Vernon,  population  twenty-five.  Nearest  large  towns  are 
Flagstaff,  Arizona,  and  Gallup,  New  Mexico,  both  over  a  hundred  miles  across  the  desert. 

The  day  in  the  field  be- 
gins with  a  Branden- 
burg Concerto  at  6  AM. 
On  a  loudspeaker.  Bach 
is  as  effective  as  a  bugle 
and,  no  doubt,  a  more 
valuable  cultural  expe- 
rience. After  breakfast 
(COVER)  and  morning 
chores,  the  trucks  are 
loaded  for  the  fifty-mile 
trip  to  the  site. 

Page  2    OCTOBER 

Dr.  Martin  and  Chris  White  check  ero- 
sion data  for  the  area.  Students  were 
responsible  for  individual  research  proj- 
ects as  well  as  the  general  work  on  the 
dig.  White  worked  on  soil  analysis. 
Below,  students  use  a  tetrapod  sifter. 

The  1966  site  was  called  Hay 
Hollow.  A  village  of  five  houses 
was  excavated.  200  storage  pits 
were  dug  and  the  contents  sifted 
for  material  remains.  The  work 
combines  classical  methods  of 
archaeology  with  modern  tech- 
niques of  statistics,  chemical  soil 
analysis  and  fossil  pollen  studies, 
to  determine  not  only  the  details 
of  the  society,  but  also  the  cli- 
mate and  wildlife  at  the  time  the 
site  was  occupied.  At  top,  John 
Fritz  surveys  the  area;  beneath,  a 
student  measures  a  storage  pit 
in  preparation  for  sectioning. 
The  arrow  points  north  and  the 
meter  stick  indicates  scale  for  the 
photographic  record. 

^r^    ,^^^^^^^UP^*^*^P^ 






Middle  photograph  shows  two  students  carefully  excavating  storage  pits.  Charcoal 
found  in  the  pits  gave  radio-carbon  dates  ranging  from  500  B.C.  to  A.D.  200,  thus 
giving  the  tentative  time  range  of  site  occupation.  Above,  left.  Robert  Blankmann 
takes  notes  on  the  distribution  of  bifacial  stone  tools,  such  as  knives  and  scrapers, 
collecting  data  for  his  research  project.  Right,  student  Brantley  Jackson  uses  a  sift- 
ing table,  searching  for  stone  artifacts. 

OCTOBER     Page  3 

The  students  worked  long 
and  hard  on  their  individual 
research  projects.  John 
Zilien  checks  the  distribu- 
tion of  fire-cracked  rock 
from  the  site.  Presence  of 
this  rock  enabled  the  party 
to  predict  the  location  of 
cooking  activities  and  then 
dig  for  fire- pits. 

Above,  Thomas  Volman  reports  on  his 
work.  Volman  studied  stone  grinding 
tools  found  at  the  site.  The  Indians  used 
these  tools  to  grind  corn,  nuts,  grasses — 
as  well  as  decorative  pigments. 
Bull  sessions  among  students  and  staff 
helped  clear  up  many  questions.  Con- 
versation in  the  bunkhouse,  r/ght,  took 
place  before  an  exam. 

Top,  student  plotting  results  of  field 
data  on  site  map.  Above,  Dr.  Martin 
looks  on  as  students  use  an  aerial  sur- 
vey map  of  Hay  Hollow  to  locate  the 
various  geological  features  of  the  area. 

Among  the  five  guest  lecturers 
who  came  to  the  Field  Station  was 
Dr.  Douglas  Schwartz  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Kentucky  who  talked 
about  problems  involved  in  mak- 
ing cultural  inferences  from  ar- 
chaeological data. 

Don  Crabtree,  Idaho  State  Univer- 
sity, is  one  of  two  men  in  the  world 
able  to  chip  stone  tools  exactly  like 
stone  age  tools.  A  set  of  stone 
skinning  tools  made  by  him  this 
summer  were  used  to  skin  a  bear. 

Miss  Vorsila  Bohrer,  University  of 
Arizona,  lectured  on  the  uses  of 
fossil  pollen  in  site  analysis,  indi- 
cating that  the  shape  of  a  grain  of 
pollen  provides  clues  to  climate. 

Page  4     OCTOBER 

The  group  visited  the  University  of  Arizona 
Field  School  at  Grasshopper,  Arizona,  su- 
pervised by  Assistant  Professor  William 
Longacre,  a  former  student  and  associate 
of  Dr.  Martin,  who  spent  six  summers  with 
Martin  in  the  field.  At  right,  students  ex- 
amine the  Grasshopper  site,  a  pueblo  of  a 
later  era  than  the  Hay  Hollow  site. 

Participation  in  community  activities  was 
an  important  part  of  the  life  at  the  Field 
Station;  below,  student  I.  B.  Remsen  plays 
guitar  at  Vernon  Day  celebration. 

An  evening  bull  session  on  the  day's  work.  Dr.  Martin  and  students  listen  as  former  Vernon  student  Dr.  James  Hill,  now 
Associate  Director  of  the  Summer  Program  and  Assistant  Professor  at  UCLA,  makes  a  point. 

The  response  to  the  summer  program,  which  has  been  supported  by  the  Undergraduate  Research  Participation  Program  of 
National  Science  Foundation,  has  been  enthusiastic.  The  program  provides  an  introduction  to  field  work  which  many 
students  formerly  did  not  receive  until  well  along  in  their  graduate  training.  The  educational  value  to  the  students  is  balanced 
by  their  own  contributions  to  the  continuing  work  on  the  prehistory  of  the  American  Southwest. 

OCTOBER    Page  5 

Sheep  dot 
an  Afghan  hillside 


BY  Austin  L.  Rand,  Chief  Curator,  Zoology  and  Jerry  D 

The  most  important  scientific  mammal  collection  ever  made 
in  Afghanistan  is  the  result  of  the  1965  Field  Museum 
expedition  financed  and  led  by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  S. 
Street.  Two  thousand  specimens  of  about  86  species  were 
shipped  to  the  Museum  for  study.  These  represent  all 
parts  of  Afghanistan  and  will  become  a  permanent  part 
of  the  worWs  collections.  Senior  Expedition  Fellow  Jerry 
Hassinger  is  now  engaged  in  the  preparation  of  a  general 
account  of  the  expedition  and  a  scientific  report  on  the  ter- 
restrial mammals.  The  present  article  is  a  general  over- 
view of  the  kinds  of  mammal  life  to  be  found  in  Afghanis- 
tan, and  those  actually  collected  bv  the  expedition. 

j^FGHANiSTAN  LIES  SANDWICHED  between  Soviet  Russia 
■  / 1  and  \Vest  Pakistan,  where  the  western  end  of  the 
t/  great  mountains  of  Asia  tail  away  to  the  Persian 

plateau.  It  is  a  country'  of  great  mountains  and  deep  val- 
leys, the  highest  peak  reaching  23,000  feet  and  the  lowest 
point  occurring  at  only  500  feet,  for  Afghanistan  does  not 
descend  to  the  sea.  The  low  rainfall,  3  to  20  inches  a  year, 
falls  mostly  in  winter.  Thus  this  land,  with  its  huge  stretches 
of  steppe  and  desert,  is  part  of  the  great  arid  belt  that  runs 
from  Arabia  to  the  Gobi  Desert  of  Mongolia.  Much  of  Af- 
ghanistan is  treeless,  except  in  oases  or  in  the  mountains  of 
the  east,  which  receive  some  rain  from  the  Indian  monsoons. 
View  after  view  recalls  the  scenery  of  our  American  West. 

The  strategic  position  of  Afghanistan  has  invited  both  the 
inroads  and  influences  of  other  cultures  through  the  centuries. 
The  Greeks  under  Alexander  marched  through;  Genghis 
Khan  and  his  Mongols  invaded  in  the  13th  century;  the  old 
silk  route  that  ran  from  Peking  to  Damascus  had  branches 
here;   troubles  with  tribesmen  led  the  British  to  force  the 

.  H.\ssiNGER,  Senior  Expedition  Fellow 

Khyber  Pass  in  the  early  19th  century.  Today,  Russia  and 
the  United  States  are  both  engaged  in  aid  programs. 

Just  as  the  country's  geographic  position  has  made  it  a 
crossroads  of  history  and  culture,  it  has  also  acted  to  draw 
animal  life  from  neighboring  faunal  regions.  Most  zoogeog- 
raphers  place  the  fauna  of  Afghanistan  in  the  same  general 
region  as  that  of  the  temperate  and  arctic  zones  of  .\sia, 
Europe  and  North  America — the  Holarctic.  In  addition, 
Afghanistan  lies  close  enough  to  the  southern  edge  of  the 
Holarctic  zone  to  receive  influxes  from  two  other  faunal  re- 
gions, the  Oriental  of  India,  and  the  Ethiopian  of  Africa  and 
Arabia.  It  was  this  varied  fauna,  reflecting  influences  from 
several  regions,  that  the  Street  expedition  set  out  to  study. 

Many  of  the  animals  observed  by  the  expedition  are  fa- 
miliar to  .■\merican  eyes.  Among  these  the  wolves,  red  foxes, 
and  weasels  are  actually  of  the  same  species  we  have.  Others 
of  different  species,  but  similar  enough  to  be  recognized,  in- 
clude a  hare  (much  like  our  jack  rabbit),  a  pika  (like  the  little 
rock  rabbit  that  stores  hay  in  the  Rockies),  a  ground  squirrel, 
a  marmot  (very  like  our  woodchuck),  a  vole  (a  meadow 
mouse  type),  a  lynx  (plainer  and  with  larger  ear  tufts  than 
ours),  and  a  red  deer  (similar  to  our  elk).  There  is  also  a 
bear  which,  like  our  black  bear,  comes  in  color  phases. 

Among  animals  familiar  to  Europeans  is  the  hedgehog,  a 
prickly  beast  that  rolls  into  a  ball  for  protection  when  dis- 
turbed. It  was  commonly  seen  on  Afghan  roads  and  was 
given  special  attention  by  the  expedition's  Medical  Entomol- 
ogist, Dr.  Robert  E.  Lewis  of  Beirut  because  of  the  abundance 
and  variety  of  its  ectoparasites.  Sana  Atallah,  Expedition 
Preparator,  skinned  what  is  surely  the  world's  most  valuable 
collection  of  this  spiny  species. 

The  cats  are  represented  by  the  tiger  of  India,  the  snow 
leopard  of  Asia  and  four  wildcats  which  are  more  like  our 
domestic  tabby  than  our  bobcat. 

Page  6     OCTOBER 

'.•      ^-S: 

tt  »-.. 

*    * 


p%t4vi/%  rv^vM  the ^-^^fy*eet  ^^k^pct^Cfic^vi 

-vcp^vf  c»vi  f;^t4Vi/%  rv^VM 

^  "^.--^ 

,-_.  <«.    '*■» 

A  rather  peculiar  inustelid  is  the  marbled  polecat,  dark 
brown  marbled  and  spotted  with  white,  which  only  vaguely 
recalls  our  spotted  skimk.  It  is  alleged  to  rob  graves.  The 
expedition  found  it  secretive;  the  only  specimen  taken  was 
killed  by  a  workman  with  a  shovel. 

Among  the  hoofed  animals  encountered,  is  a  honey-col- 
ored donkey,  the  onager,  with  a  narrow  black  dorsal  stripe. 
A  wild  boar  occurs,  similar  to  that  of  Europe,  and  like  the 
one  introduced  into  the  Tennessee  mountains  for  hunting. 
In  neighboring  Pakistan,  these  animals  are  on  the  increase 
and  have  been  quite  harmful  to  crops.  The  pale,  slender 
gazelle  of  the  desert  recalls  Africa,  where  the  group  has  many 
species.  There  are  three  species  of  goats:  one  probably  in- 
volved in  the  ancestry  of  our  domestic  goat;  one  with  long, 
spirally-twisted  horns;  and  another,  the  ibex,  with  a  magnifi- 
cent sweep  of  horns,  whose  range  reaches  west  as  far  as  Spain. 
The  sheep  with  the  finest  horns  in  the  world — Marco  Polo's 
sheep — occur  in  the  Russian  Pamirs  and  in  the  far  northeast 
of  Afghanistan.  The  expedition  was  unable  to  secure  a  speci- 
men of  this  species,  and  got  only  the  common  species  which 
is  probably  involved  in  the  ancestry  of  domestic  sheep. 

Rodents  are  often  equated  only  with  rats  and  mice.  Af- 
ghanistan has  its  share  of  these,  but  there  are  other  types  of 
rodents  as  well.  Of  these,  the  porcupine  is  the  most  striking. 
It  is  prickly  like  our  porcupine,  but  more  so.  It  has  a  greater 
number  of  quills,  some  of  which  reach  1 2  inches  in  length. 
The  desert  jerboas  are  remarkable,  long-tailed,  jumping  ro- 
dents recalling  the  kangaroo  rats  of  the  United  States.  This 
similarity  is  due  not  to  relationship,  but  to  convergent  adap- 
tation to  desert  conditions.  Seldom  are  rodents  or  their  works 
conspicuous,  but  the  Afghan  great  gerbil  {Rhombomys)  is  an 
exception.  Though  a  rather  undistinguished,  pale  colored, 
rat-like  animal,  its  burrows  in  the  hillsides  are  so  plentiful 
that  in  places  they  give  a  conspicuous  pattern  of  dots  to  the 

terrain.  Often  these  slopes  are  further  marked  by  horizontal 
lines  of  the  trails  worn  by  countless  sheep. 

Among  the  smaller  rodents  is  a  subterranean  vole,  with  a 
mole-like  fur  (moles  do  not  occur  here) .  The  migratory  ham- 
ster is  related  to  the  golden  one  that  has  found  favor  both  as  a 
children's  pet  and  as  a  laboratory  animal  for  experimental 
purposes.  The  dormouse,  a  climbing  mouse  with  a  bushy 
tail,  is  perhaps  most  widely  known  for  sleeping  through  the 
Mad  Hatter's  tea  party  in  "Alice  in  Wonderland."  Its  name 
derives  from  the  fact  that  it  hibernates  through  the  winter. 

In  the  holly  oaks  and  cedars  of  the  mid-altitudes  of  the 
eastern  part  of  the  country,  the  monkey  Macaca  mulalta  still 
occurs.  This  is  the  common  monkey  of  experimental  labora- 
tories. One  difficulty  in  getting  specimens  was  that,  despite 
its  destruction  of  crops,  the  local  people  fear  it.  They  believe 
that  if  one  is  killed,  the  remaining  monkeys  will  assemble  to 
wreak  their  vengeance.  The  species  is  Indian,  and  is  at  the 
northwest  limit  of  its  range  here. 

The  hyena,  on  the  other  hand,  of  an  African  group  reach- 
ing to  India,  approaches  the  northeastern  limit  of  its  range  in 
Afghanistan.  Afghans  use  hyenas  for  sport,  catching  them 
alive  and  pitting  them  against  dogs  in  their  form  of  "bear 

The  many  species  of  bats,  perhaps  three  dozen,  from  caves, 
rock  crevices,  and  houses,  are  very  confusing.  One  can  see 
that  some  are  larger,  some  smaller,  some  paler  or  darker, 
with  long  or  short  ears,  with  complicated  or  simple  fleshy 
patterns  about  the  nostrils.  A  special  report  on  these  crea- 
tures is  being  prepared  by  Expedition  Fellow  Hans  Neuhauser. 

It  is  likely  to  require  many  additional  months  of  study  to 
deal  with  the  large  quantity  of  material  brought  back  from 
Afghanistan  by  the  Street  Expedition.  These  specimens  have 
added  notably  to  the  Museum's  collection  of  source  material 
on  this  zoogeographically  interesting  area. 

OCTOBER     Page  7 


October  hours.  9  a.m.  to  5  p.m.  every  day.   .Admission  Jree  to  members  and  their  guests. 

October  through  November  Fall  Journey,  Masks 

Features  American  Indian  masks,  showing  through  exhibits,  how  they  were 
made  and  used  for  healing,  rainiiiaking  and  inspiring  fear.  Direction  sheets 
for  this  self-guided  tour  available  at  information  booth. 

October  1-31    Art  Forms  in  Nature,  a  High  School  Exhibit 

Work  produced  in  this  summer's  ".'\ction  Seminar  in  Art,"  a  Board  of  Educa- 
tion program  for  selected  students  from  Chicago  Public  High  Schools.  Mosaic, 
tie-die,  batik  and  stitchery  are  shown  in  Hall  9  Gallery. 

October  1    Movie:  Wildlife  At  Your  Doorstep 

Close-up  look  at  the  world  of  nature  with  commentary  by  Howard  L.  Orians. 

Octobers  Movie;  Incredible  Iceland 

Robert  Davis  speaks  on  his  film  of  this  surprising  country. 

October  1  5  Slide  show :   Field  Museum  Expedition  to  Afghanistan 

William  and  Janice  Street  discuss  color  slides  of  their  zoological  expedition. 

October  22  Movie:  Morocco 

The  country's  ancient  past  and  present  in  a  film  narrated  by  Nicol  Smith. 

October  29  Movie:  Switzerland 

Philip  Walker  speaks  on  this  land  of  variety  and  contrast. 

Programs  at  2:30p.m.  in  James  Simpson  Theatre;  members'  reserved  seats  held  until  2:25. 


Meetings  open  to  members 
and  interested  non-members. 

Chicago  Shell  Club,  October  9  at  2  p.m. 

Dr.  Alan  Solem,  Curator.  Lower  Invertebrates,  will 

discuss  shell  names. 
Illinois  Orchid  Society,  October  16  at  2  p.m. 
Illinois  Audubon  Society,  October  30  at  2:30  p.m. 

Inherit  the  Wind,  a  D.  J.  Nelson  film,  will  be  shown. 


THE  CHILDREN  PARTICIPATING  in  Field  Museum  educational  programs  were  the 
prime  beneficiaries  of  Marshall  Field  &  Company's  premiere  presentation  of  its 
Fall  1966  Designer  Collection.  The  show,  which  was  arranged  jointly  by  Marshall 
Field  &  Company  and  the  newly  organized  W^omen's  Board  of  Field  Museum, 
was  the  principal  fashion  event  of  the  autumn  season.  The  showing  was  widely 
reported  and  commented  upon  in  the  press  and  on  television.  Presented  in  early 
September  in  the  Mayfair  Room  of  the  Sheraton-Blackstone  Hotel,  it  was  pre- 
ceded by  cocktails  and  luncheon. 

Mrs.  Gordon  Lang  headed  the  committee  of  tlic  Woincn's  Board  which  made 

Mrs.  Gordon  Lang,  Benefit  Chairman.    At  right,  models  show  a  part  oj  the  collection 
against  a  background  depicting  the  Sir  John  Soane  Museum  in  London. 

arrangements  and  handled  invitations  and  ticket  sales.  She  was  assisted  by  Mrs. 
Gaylord  Donnelley,  benefit  co-chairman,  and  Mrs.  Wallace  D.  Mackenzie,  pub- 
licity chairman.  The  entire  proceeds  went  to  the  Raymond  Foundation,  an  edu- 
cational division  of  Field  Museum. 


Three  new  members  were  named  to 
the  Board  of  Trustees  of  Field  Museum 
at  the  Board's  September  meeting. 
They  are  William  R.  Dickinson,  Jr., 
Marshall  Field  and  Gerald  A.  Sivage. 

Mr.  Dickinson, 
president  of  the 
Chicago  Zoological 
Society,  is  secre- 
tary of  the  Hospital 
.Association  of  Lake 
Forest  and  of  the 
Schweppe  Founda- 
tion, a  director  of 
Children's  Memo-      Wm.  R.  Dickinson,  Jr. 

Marshall  Field 

Gerald  .\.  Sivage 

rial  Hospital  and  on  the  Lake  Forest 
Board  of  Education.  He  is  a  partner  in 
the  legal  firm  of  Wilson  &  Mcllvaine. 

Mr.  Field,  who  is  the  fifth  of  his  name 
to  serve  the  Museum,  returned  to  Chi- 
cago last  year,  after  military  training  and 
work  with  the  .Xew  York  Herald  Tribune, 
to  become  assistant  to  the  general  man- 
ager of  the  Newspaper  Division  of  Field 
Enterprises,  Inc.  His  great-great-grand- 
father, Marshall  Field,  founded  the  Mu- 
seum and  was  one  of  its  principal  bene- 
factors. Mr.  Field  is  the  fourth  Mar- 
shall Field  to  have  served  on  the  Board. 

Mr.  Sivage,  president  of  Marshall 
Field  &  Co.,  is  a  trustee  of  Northwestern 
University,  Carroll  College  and  the  Or- 
chestral Association.  He  was  named 
president  of  Marshall  Field  &  Co.  in 
1964,  the  ninth  man  to  hold  that  office. 



CHICAGO.  ILLINOIS  60605  A.C.  312.  922-9410 

E.  Leland  Webber,  Director 


Edward  G.  Nash,  Managing  Editor 
Beatrice  Paul,  Associate  Editor 

Page  8     OCTOBER 

Volume  37,  Number  11  November,  1966 


mong  the  most  fa- 
mous of  the  18  th 
century  naturaHsts  was  the 
artist-ornithologist  to  whom 
the  great  Linnaeus  wrote, 
"Your    performances    are 

A  llegorical  Jron  tispiece  and  facing 

title-page  of  George  Edwards'  A  NA  TURAL 


The  seal  on  the  title-page  is  the  Copley  Gold 

Medal,  which  the  Royal  Society 

awarded  him  in  recognition  oj  this  work. 

an  ornament  to  the  age  in 

George  Edwards  was  born  at  Stratford,  in  Essex,  England, 
on  April  3rd,  1694.  His  parents  had  decided  on  a  business 
career  for  him  and  apprenticed  him  to  a  tradesman.  In  the 
middle  of  this  term  of  apprenticeship  his  master  fell  heir  to  a 
large  collection  of  books  that  had  been  gathered  together  by 
one  of  his  relatives,  a  well-known  physician.  These  books 
were  housed  in  Edwards'  room  and  the  perusal  of  them  turned 
his  interest  from  trade  to  literature  and  science.  In  the  rare 
volume  that  is  the  source  of  much  of  our  information  about 
him,  Some  memoirs  oj  the  life  and  works  oj  George  Edwards  (Lon- 
don, 1776),  published  and  probably  written  by  the  bookseller 
J.  Robson,  we  learn  that  "He  availed  himself  of  this  unex- 

Page2    NOVEMBER 

— FROM  THE  Museum's 

pected  incident,  and  passed  all  the  leisure  of  the  day,  and  not 
infrequently  a  considerable  part  of  the  night,  in  turning  over 
this  collection  of  natural  history,  sculpture,  painting,  astron- 
omy, and  antiquities." 

Upon  the  expiration  of  his  apprenticeship  he  decided  to 
travel  into  foreign  lands  "to  improve  his  taste,  and  enlarge 
his  mind."  He  visited  Holland  in  1716,  and  in  subsequent 
years,  Norway  and  France.  In  the  latter  country  he  jour- 
neyed on  foot  to  Orleans  and  Blois  "in  a  disguised  habit"  to 
avoid  robbers  and  highwaymen.  Unfortunately,  an  edict 
was  issued  at  that  time  "to  secure  vagrants,  in  order  to  trans- 
port [them]  to  America,  as  the  banks  of  the  Mississippi 

,  N  A  TAJ  Rk;L    H  I  S  T  O  R  TT  "^ 

O     F 

Uncommon    BIRDS, 


AND     O  V 

Some  other  Rare  and  Undefcribed  A  N  I  M  A 


Si         I N s E c T s,  er<-. 

Exhibi:cil  in  Two  HuBitred  anil  Ten  Coppn-Pi-ATESt 

From  Dcfigns copied  iiTiinciliiitcIy  from  Nature,  and  corioiifly  cok>urrd  aj^  Ltrc.^ 

With  J  full  wd  tccurxe  Deftiiptioa  of  eich  FIGURE. 

To  which  11  tMtd. 
A  Brief  and  General  Klea  of  Hkawinu  and  Paihtjno  in  ffal/r-Ctlnm i   with  laftru^iiAt 
lor  ETtHisG  on  Cop|ier  vith  ///»,;  Pmiii.    Likewife  (aaue  ThMgbtt  aa  the  Pa<iau£  ur 
Birds;   aiid  Auditions  to  many  of  tfie  Siibjectj  dcfcribed  in  this  Woiir. 

in    Four    PARTS. 


Lihurs-Kerftr  to  tlx  Roml-ColLgt  of  PHYSICIANS. 


Printed  for  the  Awthor,  at  the  Cs/igf  o)  Pb}J!dam,  in  Uaneick-Lmi, 

which  we  Hve." 


wanted  population;  and  our  author  narrowly  escaped  a  west- 
ern voyage." 

Once  safely  back  in  England  he  applied  himself  to  the 
study  of  natural  history  and  to  the  practice  of  drawing  and 
coloring  from  nature.  His  early  essays  in  drawing  birds  were 
so  well  received  that  he  was  encouraged  to  continue  and 
gradually,  by  the  sale  of  his  work  and  by  teaching,  he  ob- 
tained a  good  living  and  a  large  number  of  friends  and  patrons. 

One  of  the  latter,  Sir  Hans  Sloane,  President  of  the  Col- 
lege of  Physicians  of  London  and  physician  to  the  king,  rec- 
ommended Edwards  for  the  position  of  Library-Keeper,  or 
librarian,  of  the  College.    He  was  appointed  in  December, 

1733,  and  given  rooms  in  the  College.  "This  office,"  we 
read,  "was  peculiarly  agreeable  to  his  taste  and  inclination, 
as  he  had  the  opportunity  of  a  constant  recourse  to  a  valuable 
library,  filled  with  scarce  and  curious  books  on  the  subjects 
of  natural  history,  which  he  so  assiduously  studied." 

In  1743  he  published,  somewhat  reluctantly,  the  first  part 
of  his  A  natural  history  of  uncommon  birds,  and  of  some  other  rare 
and  undescribed  animals,  containing  engravings  and  descriptions 
of  61  birds  and  2  quadrupeds,  most  of  which  had  not  been 
delineated  or  described  before.  He  tells  us  in  his  preface: 
"I  was  discouraged,  upon  first  thinking  of  this  work,  at  the 
great  expense  of  graving,  printing,  and  other  things,  which 

NOVEMBER     Page  3 

I  knew  would  be  a  certain  cost  attended  with  a  very  uncertain 
profit,  [until]  my  good  friend  Mr.  Catesby  (Mark  Catesby, 
1680?-1749,  the  author  of  the  celebrated  Natural  history  of 
Carolina,  Florida,  and  the  Bahama  Islands)  put  ine  on  etching 
my  plates  myself,  as  he  had  done  in  his  works;  and  not  only  so, 
but  invited  me  to  see  him  work  at  etching,  and  gave  me  all 
the  necessan'  hints  and  instructions  to  proceed.  .  .  .  When 
I  had  practiced  a  little  while,  I  resolved  to  do  such  new  and 
uncommon  birds  as  I  had  in  my  possession,  since  I  saved  ex- 
penses and  only  employed  my  time." 

His  fears  proved  groundless,  for  the  work  was  a  great  suc- 
cess. He  still,  however,  retained  his  reluctance  to  publish  and 
seems  to  have  considered  each  part  of  this  work  the  last. 
Part  2  appeared  in  1747;  part  3  in  1750;  part  4  in  1751.  A 
French  translation  "for  the  use  of  foreigners"  was  subse- 
quently issued  for  each  part. 

The  final  part  of  this  work  is  particularly  famous  for 
its  dedication:  "To  God  ...  By  his  most  resigned,  low,  and 
humble  creature,  George  Edwards."  This  has  shocked  some 
people  and  amused  others;  partially,  I  think,  because  the 
dedication  is  in  part  4,  the  others  being  dedicated  to  1 ,  The 
President  and  Fellows  of  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians; 
2,  Sir  Hans  Sloane;  3,  The  President,  Council,  and  Fellows 
of  the  Royal  Society.  Edwards  explains  in  his  preface  that 
"if  a  man  would  offer  any  thing  to  the  Supreme  Being  of  the 
Universe,  that  is  the  mere  production  of  his  mind,  I  think 
what  is  last  produced  by  him  ought  to  be  accounted  the  most 
perfect;  for  which  reason  I  have  offered  and  dedicated  to  God 
the  last  work  of  this  kind  that  I  intend  to  perform." 

For  this  work  he  was  voted  the  Copley  gold  medal  by  the 
Royal  Society,  given  annually  to  the  author  of  any  new  dis- 
covery in  art  or  nature.  A  few  years  later  Edwards  was 
elected  a  fellow  of  the  Royal  Society  and  of  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries,  London.  He  was  also  made  a  member  of  vari- 
ous continental  academies  of  science  and  learning. 

His  A  natural  history  oj  uncommon  birds  was  not,  however,  to 
be  Edwards'  last  production  of  this  kind.  In  1758  he  con- 
tinued the  work,  for  obvious  reasons  under  a  new  title: 
Gleanings  of  natural  history,  with  text  in  French  and  English 
in  parallel  columns.  Part  2  appeared  in  1760.  He  gives  us, 
in  the  preface  to  it,  a  wonderful  insight  into  why  he  found  it 
necessary  to  continue:  ''Tho'  I  have  no  design  to  publish  any 
thing  more  in  natural  history,  yet  sometimes,  when  new  and 
curious  subjects  offer  themselves,  my  strong  passion  for  that 
study  makes  me  desirous  to  take  drawings  of  them.  .  .  ."  In 
this  same  preface  he  makes  this  petition  to  God:  ".  .  .  that 
he  would  remove  from  me  all  desire  of  pursuing  natural  his- 
tory, or  any  other  study,  and  inspire  me  with  as  much  knowl- 
edge of  His  Divine  Nature  as  my  imperfect  state  is  capable 
of.  .  .  ."  This  was  not  to  be,  for  the  third  and  final  part 
followed  in  due  course,  being  published  in  1764.  Here  he 
makes  his  last  farewell,  "my  age  requiring  it." 

In  1769  he  resigned  his  office,  purchased  a  little  house  in 
Plaistow,  Essex,  and  sold  the  remaining  copies  and  the  plates 
of  all  his  works  to  J.  Robson.  The  following  year  Robson 
brought  out  a  volume  titled  Essays  which  consists  chiefly  of 
the  prefaces  and  introductions  to  Edwards'  works,  to  which 
were  added  instructions  for  drawing,  painting,  and  etching. 

His  last  years  were  spent  quietly  among  his  friends. 

Our  library  possesses  a  letter  of  his  to  the  Welsh  naturalist, 
Thomas  Pennant  (1726-1798),  dated  March  26,  1772,  that 
gives  us  a  touching  picture  of  him  in  old  age:  "Good  sir.  If 
you  remember,  I  promised  to  bequeath  you  a  large  oil  paint- 
ing of  the  American  pelican  by  Cha:  Colings,  but  I  have 
considered  that  it  may  give  you  some  trouble  to  procure  it 
after  I  am  departed  this  life.  I  choose  rather  to  send  it 
directly  to  any  place  in  London  where  you  would  have  it 
lodged.  I  am  obliged  to  remove  from  Physicians'  College  to 
make  room  for  a  person  lately  chosen  into  the  office  [i.e.  li- 
brarian] who  wants  the  whole  apartment  for  his  family.  In 
moving  my  things  I  believe  there  are  some  odd  things  that 
you  would  like  to  have,  and  I  [am]  unwilling  they  should  be 
swept  away  to  brokers  after  my  death.  I  am  obliged  to  you 
for  your  kind  inquiry  after  my  health  by  your  engraver. 
Your  [tour]  in  Scotland  [i.e.  Pennant's  A  tour  in  Scotland]  has 
yielded  me  more  agreeable  entertainment  than  any  book  of 
the  kind  published  of  late  years.  If  you  will  please  to  favor 
me  with  a  line  or  two,  the  picture  above  said  shall  be  lodged 
as  you  direct.  After  the  first  of  May  I  shall  be  at  my  house 
at  Plaistow  in  Essex.  In  the  meantime,  or  at  any  time,  post 
letters  will  be  taken  in  directed  to  me  at  the  College  of  Phy- 
sicians, London.  I  hope  this  will  find  you  and  your  family 
in  good  health.  I  remain,  good  sir,  your  obliged  and  most 
humble  servant,  George  Edwards."  He  died,  of  cancer,  at 
Plaistow  on  July  23rd,  1773,  aged  79. 

Our  library  is  the  fortunate  possessor  of  a  rich  collection 
of  Edwards'  works.  They  are  part  of  the  magnificent  library 
of  ornithological  books  given  to  the  Museum  by  Mr.  Edward 
E.  Ayer,  the  first  President  of  the  Board  of  Trustees.  Most  of 
the  information  to  follow  is  culled  from  John  Todd  Zimmer's 
excellent  Catalogue  of  the  Edward  E.  Ayer  Ornithological  Library 
(Chicago,  1926). 

Our  copies  of  the  first  editions  of  A  natural  history  oJ  uncom- 
mon birds  (1743-51)  and  Gleanings  oJ  natural  history  (1758-64) 
are  of  unusual  interest  in  that  they  belonged  to  Thomas  Pen- 
nant and  contain  many  notes  and  some  personalia.  The 
Latin  naine  of  each  species  of  bird,  according  to  John  Latham's 
Index  ornithologicus,  is  written  in  at  the  bottom  of  each  plate  in 
Pennant's  hand,  and  a  manuscript  index  of  these  names  is 
laid  in.  The  set  is  enriched  with  several  extra  plates,  includ- 
ing one,  "the  great  pied  mountain  finch  or  bramlin,  1739," 
which  Pennant  cites  as  "Edwards  first  essay  towards  etching 
a  bird."    The  letter  previously  quoted  is  also  included. 

The  library  possesses  a  second  edition  of  both  titles  with 
the  same  dates  on  the  title-pages,  but  with  many  changes  in 
the  text.  The  illustrations,  if  any  were  published  with  this 
edition,  are  lacking  and  are  replaced  by  water-colored  copies 
by  an  unknown  artist.  The  French  translation  of  A  natural 
history  oj  uncommon  birds,  Histoire  naturelle  d'oiseaux  peu  communs 
(London,  1745-51)  is  bound  in  with  this  set. 

A  posthumous  edition  of  Edwards'  two  works,  dated 
1802-03,  but  probably  published  in  1805  or  1806,  is  in  our 
collection.  Only  25  copies  of  this  "large  paper"  edition  were 

A  German  translation,  by  G.  L.  Huth,  of  Edwards'  two 
works,   together  with  Catesby's  Natural  history  of  Carolina, 

Paged    NOVEMBER 

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-W/-/  <"<^  '^   Oroakcr-' a^v  -»;<;  ^<//T  .'  '/-.«.  ,''f^„pj 

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.-f  fl^  /«»M/  hrviC  '/rl{     ^*^ew  'hr/^  ^  hiv^  iH   itrX^^^ 
h  ^c  ^}  Hie   G^&f  o^ '^RLpin'^' !■   '^C^^'-yy  ■  '/  ^^ 

Y^ty'r  i-ib-  nj%. 

Thomas  Pennant  cites  the  great  pied  mountain  finch  {left)  as  Edwards'' 
first  essay  towards  etching  a  bird."     The  original  is  bound  into  the 
Library's  copy  of  "History  of  Birds,"  once  owned  by  Pennant.     Beloiv, 
a  characteristic  letter  from  Edwards  to  Pennant,  written  in  1772. 

Florida,  and  the  Bahama  Islands,  was  published  in  Nuremberg 
between  1749  and  1776  as  Sammlung  verschiedenen  auslandischer 
und  seltener  Vogel.  We  do  not  have  a  copy  of  this  work,  but 
we  do  have  a  Dutch  translation  of  it.  It  was  translated  by 
Martinus  Houttuyn  and  published  in  Amsterdam,  1772  to 
1781,  as  Verzameling  van  uitlandsche  en  zeldzaame  vogelen. 

Also  included  in  our  collection  is  the  volume  of  memoirs 
mentioned  earlier.  With  it  is  bound  Linnaeus'  A  catalogue  of 
the  birds,  beasts,  fishes,  insects,  plants,  &c.  contained  in  Edwards's 
natural  history  (London,  1776). 

In  the  preparation  of  these  works  Edwards  set  himself  two 
main  goals:  to  produce  text  and  plates  that  were  accurate, 
and  to  produce  at  the  same  time  plates  that  were  aestheti- 
cally pleasing.  As  a  naturalist,  he  writes  "They  who  draw 
after  nature,  on  account  of  natural  history,  should  represent 
things  justly  and  according  to  nature.  .  .  ."  The  text  should 
also  conform  to  this  rule.  "In  describing  natural  things  noth- 
ing ought  to  be  omitted,  that  is  any  way  remarkable,  and  may 
fix  and  establish  the  character  of  the  thing  described,  so  as 
plainly  to  distinguish  it  from  all  other  things.  .  .  ."  The  in- 
formation given  should  be  based  on  observation  and  should 
be  written  up  as  such.  Information  received  from  others  or 
derived  from  books  should  be  properly  cited  so  that  it  can  be 
verified.  As  an  artist,  he  writes,  "I  have  made  the  drawings 
of  these  birds  directly  from  nature,  and  have,  for  variety's 
sake,  given  them  as  many  different  turns  and  attitudes  as  I 
could  invent:  this  I  chose  the  rather  to  do,  because  I  know 
great  complaint  hath  been  made,  that  a  late  writer  on  birds 
had  given  his  birds  no  variety  of  posture,  but  that  they  were 
direct  profiles  standing  in  the  same  position,  which  sameness 
is  disagreeable.  I  observed  also  in  his  trees,  stumps,  and 
grounds,  a  poorness  of  invention;  therefore  to  amend  that 
part  in  mine,  I  have  taken  counsel  and  assistance  of  some 
painters  my  particular  friends,  in  order  to  make  the  work 
not  only  as  natural  and  agreeable  as  I  could  in  the  sub- 
ject matter,  but  to  decorate  the  birds  with  airy  grounds, 
having  some  little  invention  in  them:  the  better  to  set  off" 
the  whole,  I  have  in  a  few  plates,  where  the  birds  were  very 
small,  added  some  foreign  insects  to  fill  up  the  naked  spaces 
in  the  plates  .  .  ." 

How  well  he  succeeded  is  best  siunmed  up,  I  think,  by 
Linnaeus.  In  a  letter  to  Edwards,  dated  March  20th,  1758, 
thanking  him  for  a  gift  of  some  pre-publication  plates,  he 
writes  "Nothing  can  more  conduce  to  the  advancement  of 
solid  natural  knowledge,  than  such  beautiful  and  excellent 
figures,  accompanied  by  such  exact  descriptions."  Again 
on  April  13th,  1764  he  writes  "I  congratulate  you  on  the 
acquisition  of  such  beautiful  and  innumerable  rare  birds, 
beyond  what  any  other  person  has  seen,  or  is  likely  to  meet 
with;  still  less  is  any  other  hand  likely  to  equal  your  repre- 
sentations, in  which  nothing  is  wanting  to  the  birds  but  their 
song.  Yet  even  these  will  sing  your  praise,  as  long  as  birds 
or  men  endure." 

NOVEMBER     Page  5 

recent  acquisitions — zoology 


One  of  the  notable  research  collections  of  the  Division  of 
Insects,  that  of  the  rove  beetles  or  Staphylinidae,  has  been 
augmented  by  the  recent  acquisition  of  the  Alexander  Bierig 
Collection,  numbering  about  26,000  specimens. 

The  rove  beetles  form  one  of  the  largest  families  of  living 
things.  More  than  30,000  species  have  been  named,  and  at 
least  again  as  many  are  still  to  be  described.  The  museum's 
study  collection  of  these  insects,  which  now  approaches  a 
quarter  of  a  million  specimens,  includes  more  than  half  of 
the  described  species  and  ranks  among  the  several  most  im- 
portant in  the  world. 

Alexander  Bierig  was  born  in  Karlsruhe,  Germany.  An 
accomplished  artist,  he  illustrated  books  and  magazines.  He 
was  also  an  ardent  amateur  entomologist  and  specialized  in 
the  study  of  ground  beetles  (Carabidae).  In  1923,  at  the  age 
of  39,  he  emigrated  to  Havana,  Cuba.  There  his  entomolog- 
ical interests  turned  to  the  rove  beetles.  Between  1939  and 
1940,  he  wrote  27  papers  dealing  with  this  family,  and  de- 
scribed more  than  150  new  species. 

Through  correspondence,  Bierig  became  a  friend  of  Ferdi- 
nand Nevennann,  the  "father"  of  Costa  Rican  entomology. 
In  1938,  while  on  a  collecting  trip  with  Nevermann  in  Costa 
Rica,  he  was  seriously  wounded  in  a  hunting  accident  that 
was  fatal  to  Nevermann.  He  returned  to  Costa  Rica  in  1939 
and  established  permanent  residence  there.  Soon,  he  be- 
came Professor  of  Entomology  at  the  University  of  Costa 
Rica  in  San  Jose. 

During  his  early  years  in  Costa  Rica,  Bierig  turned  his 
attention  to  the  Pselaphidae  and  published  one  short  paper 
dealing  with  these  beetles.  However,  most  of  the  papers  he 
wrote  as  a  professional  entomologist  dealt  with  the  biology 
and  control  of  insects  injurious  to  tropical  crops. 

Bierig  retired  from  the  University  in  1950.  He  continued 
painting,  producing  some  outstanding  works  and  lived  quietly 
until  his  death  in  1963  at  the  age  of  79,  following  a  long  ill- 
ness. After  his  death,  his  collections  and  library  suffered 
considerable  damage  and  loss.  However,  his  arranged  col- 
lection of  Staphylinidae  and  Pselaphidae  was  still  largely  safe 
when  Dr.  Rupert  L.  Wenzel,  Curator  of  Insects,  and  Mrs. 
W'enzel  went  to  Costa  Rica  in  July  to  make  final  purchase 
arrangements  and  prepare  the  collection  for  shipment. 

Two  of  the  many  fine  drawings  of  beetles  made  by  Bierig  which  were 
included  in  the  collection  of  specimens.  At  right.  Assistant  Michael 
Prokop  and  Dr.  Wenzel  unpacking  part  of  the  collection. 

Page  6     NOVEMBER 





by  James  Webb  Young 

Mr.  Toung,  an  Associate  Member  of  Field  Museum,  has  been 
deeply  interested  in  Indian  affairs  for  many  years.  He  was 
a  member  of  the  Federal  Indian  Arts  and  Crafts  Board,  De- 
partment of  the  Interior, for  a  quarter-century  and  also  belonged 
to  the  Indian  Defense  Association.  He  recalls  here  a  trip  made 
many  years  ago  to  the  sacred  country  of  the  Taos  Pueblo  Indians. 
The  story  is  pertinent  today,  for  the  Taos  tribe  is  still  engaged 
in  its  60-year  battle  to  preserve  the  religious  character  of  the 
land,  described  by  a  member  of  the  Taos  Pueblo  Council,  Seve- 
rino  Martinez,  as  "the  most  important  of  all  our  shrines  because 
it  is  a  part  of  our  life,  it  is  our  Indian  church." 


FRO.M  TIME  IMMEMORIAL  thc  1  aos  Indians  of  New  Mexico 
have  lived  on  a  high  plateau  at  the  base  of  the  Sangre  de 
Crista  mountains. 

From  an  area  of  some  50,000  acres  in  these  mountains, 
known  as  Blue  Lake,  comes  all  the  strength  of  this  tribe. 

When  one  visits  the  Taos  pueblo — as  increasing  numbers 
of  tourists  do  today — it  is  easy  to  see  in  the  clear  mountain 
stream  flowing  through  its  plaza,  how  here  "water  rights" 
translate  into  "life's  blood,"  for  both  domestic  use  and  the 
irrigation  of  food  fields. 

But  what  is  not  so  easy  for  us  of  an  increasingly  urbanized 
and  industrialized  society  to  understand  is  the  passion  of  the 
Taos  Indians  for  preserving  the  sanctity  of  the  high  mountain 
Blue  Lake  area  whence  these  waters  flow.  For  here  also  are 
the  shrines,  altars,  and  cathedral  aisles  of  a  religion  which  is 
inextricably  woven  into  the  fabric  of  Taos  life. 

Chief  among  the  sacred  and  secret  ceremonies  held  in  the 
Blue  Lake  area  are  the  annual  rites  which  induct  the  boys 
into  the  tribe,  after  months  of  instruction  and  training. 

In  the  summer  of  1926  these  ceremonies  came  under  attack 
from  some  misguided  missionaries,  who  charged  that  they 
were  "pagan,  sadistic,  and  obscene" — although  no  white  man 
had  ever  viewed  them.  And  this  brought  a  threat  from  gov- 
ernment agents  to  prohibit  these  ceremonies,  thus  striking  at 
the  very  heart  of  the  tribe's  life. 

Hence,  almost  in  desperation,  the  tribal  Council  decided 
that  their  only  salvation  might  be  to  have  some  trusted  white 
witnesses  to  the  coming  Blue  Lake  ceremonies  of  that  year. 
And  for  that  purpose  they  invited  John  Collier,  then  Execu- 
tive Secretary  of  the  American  Indian  Defense  Association, 
and  myself,  a  member  of  that  association,  to  accompany  them. 

For  these  ceremonies  almost  the  whole  tribe,  except  the 
very  old  and  very  young,  make  a  two-day  trek  into  the  moun- 
tains, on  horseback  or  afoot.  We  were  to  follow  them,  with 
horses,  camp  outfit,  and  guides  provided  by  the  Council. 
The  photo  at  the  left  was  taken  on  that  trip.  In  it,  I  am  at 
the  left  and  John  Collier  is  in  the  center.  The  other  two  men 
are  guides. 

When  we  arrived  at  the  first  night's  camp  the  sun  had 
gone  down,  and  a  light  rain  was  falling.  But  we  found  a 
place  set  aside  for  us  on  the  rim  of  a  vast  glade,  in  a  grove  of 
aspen  trees  so  large  they  suggested  cathedral  columns.  And 
all  around  the  circle  of  this  glade  the  Indian  campfires  were 
already  brightly  burning,  suppers  being  cooked,  horses  stamp- 
ing and  neighing,  and  friendly  voices  chattering. 

Our  own  fire  was  soon  added,  with  stew  and  cofTee  pots 
going.  Supper  was  eaten,  and  cigarettes  lighted.  Then  sud- 
denly, as  though  an  order  had  been  given,  or  a  curtain  come 
down,  a  pin-drop  silence  settled  over  the  glade.  And  our 
guides  were  called  to  a  conference  out  in  its  center. 

The  Cacique,  head  of  the  religious  hierarchy  of  the  tribe, 
had  challenged  the  right  of  the  Council  to  invite  us  to  an 
essentially  religious  cermony.  And,  as  the  conference  had 
been  unable  to  resolve  the  issue,  it  was  submitted  to  us. 

We  at  once  said  that  we  were  not  there  to  create  dissen- 
sion; we  were  sure  our  horses  could  find  their  way  down  the 
trail;  and  so  we  would  saddle  up  and  leave. 

"No,"  was  the  reply.  All  were  agreed  that  we  could  stay 
for  that  night's  ceremonies,  but  should  leave  in  the  morning. 

So,  that  being  accepted,  it  was  as  though  the  curtain  had 
gone  up  again.  The  camp  came  to  life,  wood  was  added  to  all 
the  fires,  and  in  their  light  the  ceremonies  began. 

These  consisted  of  dance  after  dance,  with  varying  inter- 
vals of  complete  silence  in  between.  Some  dances  included 
men,  women,  and  children.  Some  men  alone.  Some  with 
large  groups,  some  with  smaller.  But  all  with  the  drum  beat- 
ing the  rhythm,  and  most  with  the  deep-toned  men's  chorus 
in  the  background.  No  dance,  however,  that  either  Collier 
or  I  could  remember  ever  having  seen  before. 

And  so  it  went,  throughout  the  night,  in  the  light  of  the 
fires  around  the  glade,  framed  by  the  towering  white  aspen. 

Until  the  finale.  There  had  been  a  longer  period  of  silence 
than  usual — perhaps  half  an  hour — and  all  the  fires  had  died 
down.  Then,  just  as  the  first  gleam  of  dawn  showed  through 
the  aspens,  out  into  the  center  of  the  glade  came  the  shadowy 
figure  of  one  man.  And  there,  without  drum  or  chorus,  he 
delivered  a  solo  invocation  to  the  rising  sun — ending  just  as 
its  color  began  to  streak  the  sky. 

After  that  there  was  only  profound  silence  again  until  the 
sun  was  fully  up.  Then  all  at  once  the  glade  was  filled  with 
the  bustle  of  breaking  camp.  The  Indians  saddled  up,  as  did 
we.  They  went  up  the  mountains,  and  we  went  down — en- 
abled to  testify  only  to  a  night  of  sylvan  magic  and  beauty. 

NOVEMBER     Page  7 


fames  W.  \'anStone  has  joined  the  staff  of  the  Museum  as  Associate  Curator  of 
North  American  Archaeology  and  Ethnology.  Dr.  VanStone,  born  in  Chicago, 
studied  at  Oberlin  College  and  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  and  has  served  on 
the  faculties  of  the  University  of  Alaska  and  the  University  of  Toronto. 

His  major  research  interest  is  in  the  cultures  of  the  Indians  and  Eskimo  of  Alaska 
and  northwestern  Canada.  He  is  at  present  involved  in  a  long-range  research  proj- 
ect on  the  Eskimo  of  southwestern  Alaska. 

Dr.  VanStone  has  published  widely  in  journals,  and  serves  as  editor  for  several 
anthropology  journals.  He  is  the  author  of  three  books,  the  most  recent  of  which 
is  The  Ethno- Archaeology  oj  Crow  Village,  Alaska  {Bureau  of  American  Ethnology,  Bulle- 
tin 199.     Washington)  which  is  in  press  at  this  writing. 


Robert  F.  Inger,  Curator,  Reptiles  and  Amphibians,  on  leave  from  the  Museum  for 
one  year  as  of  September  1 ,  1966,  is  currently  holding  the  post  of  Program  Director 
for  Environmental  Biology  at  the  National  Science  Foundation.  Dr.  Inger's  appoint- 
ment to  this  post  follows  three  years  of  service  as  a  member,  from  1962  to  1965,  of 
the  environmental  biology  panel,  a  body  of  scientists  which  reviews  grant  proposals 
and  makes  recommendations  to  the  Program  Director  concerning  them. 

Dr.  Inger,  on  the  Museum  staff  since  1946,  has  been  Curator  of  Amphibians  and 
Reptiles  since  1954.  Among  his  most  recently  published  works  is  The  Sjstematics 
and  Evolution  of  the  Oriental  Colubrid  Snakes  oj  the  Genus  Calamaria  (with  co-author 
Hymen  Marx),  Volume  49  of  the  Museum's  Fieldiana:  Zoology  series. 


The  Museum  is  pleased  to  host  the  second  series  of  Showcase  of  Music  Concerts 
presented  by  the  Indiana  University  School  of  Music.  The  concerts,  to  be  pre- 
sented at  8:15  p.m.  on  four  Tuesday  evenings  in  the  James  Simpson  Theatre,  will 
open  on  November  15th  with  the  Berkshire  Quartet,  an  internationally  famous 
string  ensemble,  about  which  N.  T.  Times  music  critic  Harold  Schonberg  wrote, 
"one  of  the  finest  (chamber  music  groups)  in  action." 

Other  concerts  scheduled  to  be  given  are  by  The  Indiana  University  Opera  Trio 
on  December  13th,  The  Baroque  Chamber  Players  on  February  28th,  and  The 
Indiana  University  Jazz  Ensemble  on  April  18th. 

Advance  tickets  for  the  concerts  are  available  at  no  cost  by  writing  the  Museum. 


Museum  open  during  November  from  9  a.m.  until  4  p.m.  weekdays,  until  5  p.m.  on  vueekends. 
November  12  Movie:  Mysteries  of  the  Balkan  World 

Producer  Gene  Wiancko  narrates  his  colorful  travel  film. 
November  15  Concert:  The  Berkshire  Quartet 

First  of  four  concerts  presented  by  Indiana  University  School  of  Music. 

8:15  p.m.  in  James  Simpson  Theatre.  Write  or  phone  museum  for  advance  tickets. 
November  19  Movie:  Ojibvvay  Country 

Combines  rugged  adventure  of  the  life  of  northern  Ontario's  Indians  and  the 

beauties  of  their  wilderness  home.    Made  and  narrated  by  David  Jarden. 
November  1 9-20  Orchid  Show 

Illinois  Orchid  Society's  annual  show  exhibits  hundreds  of  flowering  plants  in 

dramatic  settings,  all  labeled  with  scientific  and  common  names.    Hall  9. 
November  26  Movie:  Only  in  Portugal 

Religious  shrines,  wine-making  country  and  big  cities.    Gerald  Hooper  narrates. 

Movies  at  2:30 p.m.  in  James  Simpson  Theatre;  members^  reserved  seats  held  until  2:25. 

Chicago  Shell  Club,  November  13  at  2  p.m. 

Lecture  by  Mrs.  Betty  Lou  Girardi 
Illinois  Audubon  Society,  November  20  at  2 :30  p.m. 

The  film,  Island  Treasure,  will  be  shown. 


Meetings  open  to  club  members 
and    interested   non-members. 

Board  of  Trustees  Adds  Member, 
William  Swartchiid,  Jr. 

The  election  of  William  G.  Swartchiid, 
Jr.,  to  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  Field 
Museum  of  Natural  History,  has  been 
announced  by  James  L.  Palmer,  Presi- 
dent. The  action  was  taken  at  the  Oc- 
tober meeting  of  the  Board. 

Mr.  Swartchiid  is  president  of  Swart- 
chiid &  Co. 

He  is  a  national  advisory  board  mem- 
ber and  national  council  representative 
of  the  American  Ordnance  Association 
and  a  director  of  the  Chicago  Post  of  the 
same  organization.  During  the  second 
world  war  he  served  with  the  Army  Ord- 
nance Corps,  and  is  at  present  a  lieuten- 
ant-colonel in  the  Ordnance  Corps  of 
the  U.  S.  Army  Reserve. 

A  director  of  Illinois  Blue  Cross,  he  is 
also  an  officer  and 
director  of  Chil- 
dren's Memorial 
Hospital,  a  director 
of  Michael  Reese 
Hospital  and  Med- 
ical Center  and  a 
director  of  the 

Mr.  Swartchiid,  a  native  Chicagoan, 
is  also  a  member  of  the  Home  Care  Steer- 
ing Committee  of  the  Visiting  Nurses 
Association.  He  has  served  as  Chair- 
man of  the  Elxecutive  Committee  of  the 
Health  Division  of  the  Welfare  Council 
of  Metropolitan  Chicago,  and  of  the 
Health  Reviewing  Committee  of  the 
Community  Fund. 

Mr.  Swartchiid  is  the  sixth  new  mem- 
ber to  join  the  Board  of  Trustees  this 
year.  His  election  brings  its  member- 
ship to  26.  Until  1966  the  Board  was 
limited  to  21  members,  but  a  change  in 
the  by-laws  now  sets  a  maximum  of  27 



CHICAGO.  ILLINOIS  60605  AC.  312.  922-9410 

E.  Leland  Webber,  Director 


Edward  G.  Nash,  Managing  Editor 
Beatrice  Paul,  Associate  Editor 


Pages    NOVEMBER 

-'-fc  i. 

i  m 



J.  K.  SM»LL     J 


j/":/-    •J/^tj    e^iuM^'^iL 

Volume  37,  Number  12  December,  1966 


A  curious  historical  event  which  tooi<  place  on  an  artificial  lake  near  Paris  almost 
exactly  1 20  years  ago  is  commemorated  at  the  Museum  by  a  small  temporary  exhibit 
in  Stanley  Field  Hall  this  month. 

George  Catlin,  the  famous  painter  of  American  Indian  life,  had  taken  a  group  of 
Ojibwa  and  Iowa  Indians  on  a  tour  of  Europe.  When  they  appeared  before  the 
French  Court,  a  boat  race  was  arranged  between  four  Indians  in  a  birch  bark  canoe 
and  four  French  sailors  in  a  "White  Hall"  racing  boat,  built  in  New  York  for  the 
Prince  de  Joinville.  Present  were  King  Louis  Phillipe  of  France,  King  Leopold  of 
the  Belgians  and  the  royal  families. 

To  everyone's  great  regret,  the  Indians  lost.     Catlin  thought  they  might  have 

won  if  they  had  had  only  two  men  in  the  canoe,  or  "if  they  had  put  two  squaws  in 
it  instead  of  the  men,  as  they  are  in  the  Indian  country  much  superior  to  the  men 
in  paddling  canoes."      '  • 

The  race  had  been  preceded  by  demonstrations  of  the  Indians' skill  at  archery 
and  lacrosse,  as  well  as  by  several  war  dances.  The  ladies  of  the  Courts  were  par- 
ticularly interested  in  a  young  Indian  mother  and  her  papoose.  After  the  race,  the 
Indians  and  Catlin  retired  to  a  wing  of  the  palace,  where  a  feast  awaited  them. 

The  race  was  recorded  both  by  Mr.  Catlin  and  by  M.  Gudin,  Marine  Painter  to 
the  French  King.  Gudin's  painting  has  been  presented  to  the  Museum  by  Mrs. 
A.  W.  F.  Fuller.  The  painting  and  a  reproduction  of  Mr.  Catlin's  drawing  of  the 
same  scene  are  on  view  through  the  end  of  the  year  in  Stanley  Field  Hall. 

P^ge2     DECBMBklt. 


An  Axe-Handle  from  Africa 

by  Leon  Siroto,  Assistant  Curator,  African  Ethnology 

NEAR  THE  OFFICE  of  the  Anthropology 
Department  is  a  case  containing 
diverse  artifacts;  the  front  panel  bears 
a  prominent  question  mark.  The  items 
within  represent  the  more  difficult  prob- 
lems found  in  our  large  collections  of 
well  identified  ethnographic  material. 
This  display  was  set  up  to  draw  atten- 
tion to  our  lack  of  information  about  the 
origin  of  these  problem  pieces  or,  in 
many  cases,  their  intended  use.  We 
hope  that  visiting  colleagues  can  relate 
these  enigmas  to  something  from  their 
areas  of  special  interest. 

In  the  natural  sciences  the  differenti- 
ation and  elaboration  of  forms  follows 
regvilar  and  limited  lines;  the  literature 
dealing  with  these  forms  is  expected  to 
be  comprehensive  enough  to  avoid  ma- 
jor problems  of  identity. 

The  curators  of  a  museum's  anthropo- 
logical collection  face  a  different  prob- 
lem. The  range  of  possible  forms,  of 
human  inventiveness — especially  in  non- 

essential aspects — makes  a  comprehen- 
sive visual  catalogue  unlikely.  The  per- 
plexed curator  looks  not  so  much  for  pub- 
lished counterparts  of  the  entire  artifact 
as  for  small  features  that  relate  to  a  defi- 
nite region  or,  with  better  luck,  a  certain 

A  clue  of  this  sort  saved  a  recent  ac- 
quisition from  being  consigned  to  the 
department's  problem  case.  This  ob- 
ject, a  wooden  axe-handle  carved  in 
human  form,  was  given  to  the  Field  Mu- 
seum this  year  by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  J. 
Klejmanof  New  York  City.  Other  than 
being  African,  its  origin  was  unknown. 

A  high  vertical  slot  passes  through  the 
trunk  of  the  presumably  male  figure. 
This  slot  doubtless  served  to  hold  a  long- 
tailed,  iron  axe-blade.  The  method  of 
setting  the  blade  into  the  handle,  the  es- 
timated width  of  the  blade  and  the  orna- 
mental nature  of  the  handle  recall  the 
East  Coast  of  Africa.  Then,  a  minor 
feature  serves  to  narrow  down  the  search 

for  a  region  of  possible  origin. 

On  the  back  of  the  figure's  "skirt"  and 
on  several  ornamental  bands  around  the 
shaft  itself  occurs  a  decorative  motive 
that  seems  to  be  limited  to  the  northern 
part  of  Mozambique  (Portuguese  East 
Africa)  and  coastal  and  southern  Tan- 
zania. This  form,  a  concave,  broad  el- 
lipse, is  found  modified  and  combined  in 
various  ways  throughout  this  area.  It 
probably  derives  from  the  decorative 
tradition  of  the  Zanzibar  Arab  culture 
in  which  a  similar  form  is  important  in 
the  floral  embellishment  of  house  parts. 
The  other  decorative  motives  on  the  axe- 
handle  are  less  distinctive  of  the  region 
but  are  nevertheless  often  found  in  com- 
bination with  the  "petals"  that  supplied 
the  first  clue. 

Within  the  area  of  possible  origin 
there  is  one  people  who  seem  especially 
given  to  the  use  of  this  motive  in  the  dec- 
oration of  wood  carving.  This  people, 
the  Makonde,  seem  remarkable  for  their 

DECEMBER     Page  3 

traditional  practice  of  carving  masks  and 
figures  in  a  region  otherwise  lacking  in 
representational  art. 

This  predilection  has  not  been  satis- 
factorily explained.  Rather  than  being 
an  isolated  phenomenon,  it  could  relate 
to  the  Makonde  stubbornly  holding  fast 
to  old  beliefs  and  skills  while  the  influ- 
ence of  .^rabs  in  the  north  and  Ngimi 
(cattle-raising  and  militaristic  Bantu)  in 
the  south  wore  down  traditions  of  sculp- 
ture held  by  adjacent  peoples.  The  Ma- 
konde plateau,  considered  a  natural  fort, 
probably  strengthened  this  conservatism. 
The  Makonde,  a  Bantu-speaking  people, 
depend  upon  the  cultivation  of  maize, 
sorghum  and  cassava.  They  formerly 
lived  in  small,  compact  hamlets  which 
were  quite  difficult  to  find  in  the  dense 
bush  of  their  plateau. 

The  head  of  the  axe-handle  is  not 
carved  in  characteristic  Makonde  style. 
The  face  is  somewhat  naturalistically 
modeled  and  lacks  the  characteristic,  al- 
most inevitable  lip-plug.  The  stance  is 
angular.  The  shoulders  are  transformed 
into  a  shelf-like  structure  which,  while  it 
seems  to  be  unique  in  East  African  figure 
sculpture,  could  relate  to  the  hafting  of 
the  blade,  providing  a  strut  for  protec- 
tion of  the  otherwise  fragile  head-dress. 

Once  we  consider  a  Makonde  origin 
we  must  take  account  of  certain  features 
that  make  any  other  assignment  difficult. 
The  head-dress,  which  seems  to  repre- 
sent a  queue  of  hair  hanging  down  to 
shoulder  level,  occurs  among  a  sub-group 
of  the  Makonde  called  the  Mawia.  We 
find  it  on  heads,  representing  Mawia 
men,  carved  as  decorative  handles  on 
the  covers  of  boxes  for  snufT  and  medi- 
cine; the  feature  seems  not  to  occur  in 
the  traditional  style  of  any  other  East 
African  people.  On  the  figure's  brow 
and  temples  are  clusters  of  squarish 
knobs  simulating  ornamental  scarifica- 
tion, a  practice  more  highly  developed 
among  the  Makonde  than  other  peoples 
in  Tanzania  and  Mozambique. 

.Although  reminiscent  of  the  Makonde 
tradition,  the  style  is  not  close  enough  to 
give  complete  assurance.  To  the  north 
and  west  of  the  Makonde  complex  there 
are  little-studied  peoples  whose  carving 
shows  some  concern  with  art.  This 
vagueness  around  the  edges  of  this  style 
province  suggests  that  it  is  best  to  express 
doubt  by  saying  "probably  Makonde." 


K     ^ 

The  feature  that  would  most  conclu- 
sively establish  the  Makonde  identity  of 
the  figure  is  ambiguous.  In  most  Ma- 
konde carving  the  upper  lip  protrudes 
very  markedly.  This  convention  depicts 
the  characteristic  lip-plug  worn  by  all 
Makonde  women  and  by  men  of  the 
Mawia  sub-group.  The  upper  lip  of  our 
figure  does  not  protrude,  but  does  show 
a  roimd  pit. 

We  cannot  with  any  certainty  deter- 
mine the  nature  of  this  pit.    It  may  rep- 

resent the  hole  left  by  the  removal  of  the 
lip-plug.  The  greater  likelihood,  how- 
ever, is  that  an  ornamental  carving 
would  show  all  ornaments  in  place  rather 
than  indicate  their  former  presence.  Pos- 
sibly a  bit  of  some  material  was  once  im- 
bedded in  the  pit;  if  so,  no  trace  remains. 
The  heads  of  small  iron  nails  that  rep- 
resent the  eyes  are  still  in  place.  Five 
brass  upholstery  tacks  also  remain  above 
and  alongside  the  blade-slot;  (these  Eu- 
ropean trade-items  decorate  traditional 

Paged     DECEMBER 

Clues  to  the  origin  of  the  decorative  motives  on  the  axe-handle 
are  a  composite  door-frame  (detail  far  left)  said  to  be  from 
"German  East  Africa,"  but  in  the  tradition  of  the  Zanzibar  Arab 
culture;  and  beneath  it,  a  gunpowder  box  and  three  box  lids 
from  the  Makonde  region.  Fifty  years  ago  all  men  wore  these 
wooden  containers  on  their  belts.  The  actual-size  segment  of 
axe-handle  at  left  shows  petal  motive  common  to  all  three 
illustrations,  and  zig-zag  motive  found  on  some  of  the  box  lids. 

Possible  form  and  ways  of  hafting  the  missing  blade, 
suggested  by  complete  specimens  collected  in  the  re- 
gion around  the  Makonde. 

The  face  on  the  axe-handle,  much 
enlarged,  showing  the  pit  in  the 
upper  lip.  Compare  with  the  pho- 
tograph beside  it  of  a  Mwera 
woman  (a  Makonde  group),  show- 
ing lip-plug  and  ornamental  raised 
scars.    (After  Kuesters,  1930.) 

Profile  of  the  head  of  the  figure  on  the  axe-handle, 
showing  the  sort  of  headdress  said  to  have  been  worn 
by  Mawia  men  (a  Makonde  group).  Note  its  similarity 
to  the  headdress  on  the  carving  of  a  Mawia  man,  far 
right.  This  drawing  is  after  one  by  Weule,  1 908,  show- 
ing the  knobbed  lid  of  a  box. 

sculpture  in  many  parts  of  Equatorial 
Africa.)  We  cannot  overlook  the  possi- 
bility of  the  pit  being  a  way  of  reproduc- 
ing the  natural  groove  of  the  upper  lip. 
Having  to  stop  short  of  the  conclusive 
argument  is  disappointing;  the  combi- 
nation of  a  man's  lip-plug  and  queue- 
like hairdress  would  enable  us  to  attribute 
the  artifact  to  the  Mawia.  Were  we  cer- 
tain that  the  piece  had  been  made  by  a 
Mawia  or  by  a  carver  of  another  group 
who  was  attempting  to  depict  a  Mawia 

type,  we  might  be  able  to  say  something 
about  the  possible  age  of  the  piece. 

The  distinctive  headdress  is  found  only 
in  sculpture.  We  can  assume,  therefore, 
that  it  became  obsolete  sometime  before 
the  Makonde  were  studied  by  thorough- 
going German  ethnologists  at  the  begin- 
ning of  this  century.  This,  together  with 
the  finish  and  careful  workmanship  of 
the  piece,  could  sviggest  that  the  axe- 
handle  came  into  being  around  the  end 
of  the  last  century.    Old  styles  of  dress, 

however,  are  often  "fossilized"  in  sculp- 
ture styles,  being  represented  long  after 
their  abandonment. 

The  treatment  of  the  lower  body  is 
distinctive  but  of  little  diagnostic  value. 
Clothing  seems  to  be  represented,  an  vin- 
usual  feature  in  African  traditional  sculp- 
ture. The  nature  of  the  garment,  how- 
ever, is  not  clear;  its  form  could  allude 
to  a  strip  of  fabric — narrow  in  front  and 
flaring  behind — passed  between  the  legs 
and  held  under  a  wide  belt.    We  have 

DECEMBER     Page  5 

little  direct  evidence  for  the  traditional 
attire  of  Makonde  men:  most  of  the 
statues  represent  women.  The  Makonde 
wore  garments  of  hide,  bark  cloth  and 
domestically  woven  cotton. 

The  absence  of  a  blade  may  keep  us 
from  sufficiently  understanding  both  the 
general  form  and  the  special  features  of 
the  handle.  The  wood  could  have  been 
shaped  to  bring  out  the  special  qualities 
of  the  worked  iron.  (The  same  man 
coiJd  have  fashioned  both  parts;  in  many 
societies  smith  and  wood-carver  were 
one.)  The  ornateness  of  the  handle  sug- 
gests a  blade  well  decorated,  possibly  by 
engraving  or  openwork.  We  know  noth- 
ing of  the  relative  importance  of  blade 
and  handle  in  traditional  African  atti- 
tudes toward  ornamental  implements. 
In  the  case  of  certain  types  of  axe,  greater 
care  and  imagination  are  expressed  in 
the  making  of  the  blade,  but  this  cannot 
be  advanced  as  a  rule  for  all  types. 

The  original  use  of  the  object  is  as  im- 
precise as  its  origin.  Although  we  see 
that  it  was  intended  to  serve  as  the  han- 
dle of  an  axe,  we  cannot  imagine  it  used 
in  hewing.  The  shaft  is  too  thin  and  the 
form  of  the  figure  too  attenuated  to  hold 
up  under  working  conditions.  The 
height  and  thinness  of  the  slot  indicates 
a  wide  flat  blade,  probably  more  orna- 
ment than  tool. 

At  best,  this  axe  did  only  minimal  work 
as  a  tool.  Its  main  role  was  evidently 
symbolic.  Its  decorative  quality  leads 
us  to  class  it  with  other  axes  characteris- 
tic of  many  traditional  African  cultures. 
These  axes  make  up  a  category  deter- 
mined by  their  ornamental  nature;  they 
are  related  to  ceremony,  ritual,  and  dis- 
play for  personal  prestige.  Implements  of 
this  sort  are  often  thought  of  as  "dance 
axes,"  on  the  vague  supposition  that 
these  rituals  and  displays  are  expressed 
primarily  through  the  dance.  Those 
authors  who  refer  to  implements  of  this 
sort  as  "battle  axes,"  usually  do  not  tell 
whether  they  were  used  in  combat  or  in 
peripheral  display. 

Knowledge  of  the  use  of  ornamental 
axes  in  most  African  societies  is  super- 
ficial. It  is  generally  believed  that  cere- 
mony is  important  in  simpler  cultures 
and  that  ceremony  requires  interesting 
paraphernalia.  Thus,  any  object  of  care- 
fully worked  and  unusual  aspect  is,  in 
the  absence  of  precise  information,  writ- 

ten off  as  "ceremonial."  Published 
sources  offer  very  few  accounts,  detailed 
or  otherwise,  of  the  ceremonies  which 
purportedly  gave  these  objects  their  rea- 
son for  existence. 

A  simpler  and  probably  more  accept- 
able explanation  of  weapons  and  tools  of 
a  primarily  ornamental  nature  is  found 
in  the  high  regard  of  traditional  Africans 
for  skillful  workmanship.  .Mthough  they 
do  not  concern  axes,  cases  abound  of 
traditional  African  leaders  and  com- 
munities seeking  to  establish  respect  and 
fame  through  the  ownership  of  objects 
showing  remarkable  beauty,  complexity 
or  ingenuity.  It  is  impossible  to  separate 
these  goals  and  their  pursuit  from  reli- 
gious beliefs,  but,  as  far  as  our  informa- 
tion goes,  ornamental  versions  of  imple- 
ments can  come  into  being  to  fulfill 
certain  realistic  objectives  and  personal 

We  must  remember  that  in  many  Afri- 
can societies  experience  of  the  diverse 
and  extraordinary  was,  in  relation  to  our 
own,  very  limited.  The  ownership  of  a 
remarkable  object  made  for  a  remarkable 
man.  In  the  pre-state  societies  of  tradi- 
tional Africa,  prestige  attained  or  in- 
creased through  the  possession  of  un- 
usual artifacts  could  relate  closely  to  the 
prospects  of  wealth  and  leadership  for  a 
man  or  a  community.  The  connection 
between  leadership  and  art  was  no  less 
apparent  then  than  it  is  in  our  own  cul- 
ture today.  W'e  read  of  chiefs  lending 
their  specially  made  staffs  or  weapons  to 
messengers  as  an  assurance  of  safe  con- 
duct and  proof  of  position  in  the  chiefs 

In  many  societies  such  artifacts  were 
not  duplicated;  once  made,  they  became 
emblem  of  the  owner's  uniqueness.  The 
history  of  one  African  community — a 
village  of  the  Ibo  in  eastern  Nigeria — 
dramatically  illustrates  this  principle. 
Its  leaders  hired  an  expensive  carver  to 
fashion  an  enormous  and  unusually  dec- 
orated message-drum.  As  the  carver 
was  about  to  return  to  his  village,  it  oc- 
curred to  the  villagers  that  their  symbol 
of  excellence  might  be  surpassed  by  his 
subsequent  commissions.  To  be  certain 
that  they  would  own  the  artist's  crown- 
ing achievement,  they  killed  him. 

Without  visualizing  any  such  macabre 
background  for  the  axe-handle  under 
discussion,  we  do  note  that  nothing  quite 

like  it  has  been  published.  It,  too,  may 
have  been  a  costly,  unique  creation  des- 
tined to  be  the  emblem  of  a  man  who 
had  attained  or  aspired  to  great  impor- 
tance in  his  society. 

Living  in  small  independent  tommu- 
nities,  the  Makonde  probably  had  a  great 
number  of  chiefs  who  could  claim  to  be 
important.  Personal  distinction  and 
prestige  would  thus  have  received  con- 
siderable stress. 

Why  an  axe  as  a  symbol  of  status?  .^s 
African  informants  seem  not  to  give  any 
explicit  answer,  we  must  piece  together 
possible  reasons  from  what  we  learn  of 
their  cultures.  In  many  parts  of  Africa 
the  axe  is  a  prime  essential  of  cultivation; 
without  it,  the  land  cannot  be  cleared 
for  planting  crops.  In  many  of  the  less 
elaborate  cultures — such  as  that  of  the 
Makonde — an  important  man  is  by  defi- 
nition the  head  of  an  important  family. 
A  family's  importance  is  often  measured 
by  its  claim  to  the  land :  it  is  among  the 
first  settlers  and  farmers.  In  this  sense 
the  axe  can  bear  a  symbolism  akin  to 
that  of  "the  plow  that  broke  the  plains" 
in  our  own  culture.  Its  carrying  or  wear- 
ing (ornamental  axes  often  have  long 
blades  which  allow  them  to  be  hooked 
over  the  shoulder)  could  serve  as  an  ele- 
gant statement  about  the  owner  and  his 
relationship  to  his  land  and  people. 

The  axe  hews  and  fells,  but  it  also 
splits.  Perhaps  the  most  important  func- 
tion of  the  family  head  is  the  division 
and  apportioning  of  various  essentials  of 
life.  He  decides  upon  the  sharing  out 
of  farmland  and  village  space  to  his  fol- 
lowers. The  distribution  of  meat  to  units 
within  the  extended  family  under  his 
leadership  can  depend  upon  the  use  of 
an  axe.  In  many,  if  not  most,  African 
languages,  one  settles  a  dispute  by  "cut- 
ting" it;  the  axe  can  thus  have  a  judicial 

As  ideas  of  technology  and  social  or- 
ganization run  together  in  our  attempt 
to  explain  the  symbolism  of  an  ornamen- 
tal axe,  we  can  assume  that  an  artifact 
whose  background  is  so  nuanced  can 
serve  as  an  important  point  of  departure 
in  our  learning  of  its  makers  and  their 
way  of  life.  This  particular  acquisition 
is  important  for  its  unusual  style,  but  no 
less  so  for  the  questions  it  poses  about  the 
social  and  cultural  background  of  orna- 
mental axes  in  Africa. 

Page  6    DECEMBER 


Traditional  decoration  for  the  holiday  season  has  always 
relied  heavily  on  greenery.  While  the  laurel,  pine,  yew,  Ore- 
gon grapp,  red  qedar,  ground  pine,  wintergreen  and  perhaps 
others  have  played  their  roles  in  Christmas  celebrations,  the 
holly  is  by  far  the  most  widely  used  and  highly  prized. 

The  use  of  holly  to  decorate  during  festive  and  festival 
occasions  predates  the  Christian  era.  Its  use  as  a  charm  or 
symbol  to  ward  off  evil  was  common  practice  among  the 
Druids,  who  placed  wreaths  on  their  doors  for  this  purpose. 
European  holly  {Hex  aquifolium  L.)  with  its  very  shiny,  dark 
green  leaves  was  very  soon  adopted  by  the  early  Christians  to 
help  mark  the  Christmas  season. 

As  use  of  the  plant  increased,  its  prevalence  in  nature  de- 
creased. Litde  was  known  about  the  adverse  effects  of  sea- 
sonal pruning  or  cutting.  The  destructive  practice  of  random 
breaking  resulted  In  a  very  reduced  supply  of  the  plant. 

When  the  Europeans  arrived  and  began  to  explore  the 
United  States,  they  found  the  "American  holly"  {Iltx  opaca 
Ait. — all  hollies  bear  the  generic  name  Hex)  growing  in 
relative  abundance  from  Florida  to  Massachusetts  and  from 
the  Atlantic  Ocean  to  the  Mississippi  River,  excepting  the 
northwestern  part  of  this  area,  which  includes  Chicago.  Al- 
though the  leaves  of  this  holly  are  not  the  shining  green  of 

Qabriel  Edwin,  Assistant  Curator,  Vascular  Plants 



_  y  V 



DECEMBER    Page  7 

though  the  leaves  of  this  holly  are  not  the  shining  green  of 
the  old  world  species,  the  two  have  in  common  prickly  leaves 
and  copious  production  of  red  berries.  Of  the  approximately 
600  species  of  holly  occurring  throughout  the  world,  only 
about  six  have  bright  red  berries  and  sharp,  spiny  leaf-mar- 
gins. This  new  world  holly  plant  was  soon  put  to  use  in  the 
historic  way.  There  are  over  20  other  species  of  holly  in  our 
country  but  only  Ilex  opaca  has  caught  on  for  wreath,  sprig 
and  other  related  uses. 

When  the  settlers  were  few  in  number  and  clustered  along 
the  eastern  seaboard,  the  cutting  and  priming  of  the  plants 
presented  no  problem.  Almost  everyone  had  at  least  one 
plant  growing  nearby,  and  his  needs  were  modest  enough  so 
that  the  relatively  few  sprigs  taken  each  year  did  no  lasting 
damage.  It  should  be  noted  that  holly  plants  are  either  male 
or  female.  Since  only  the  female  bears  the  desired  bright 
red  berries,  cutting  is  almost  always  restricted  to  this  sex. 

However,  with  increasing  population  and  growth  of  cities, 
the  inevitable  came  to  pass;  a  decrease  of  woodland  sites 
available  for  plants,  holly  included.  The  net  result  was  fewer 
female  American  hollies  farther  away  from  their  place  of  use. 
With  the  passing  years  ever  greater  demands  for  sprigs  and 
wreaths  were  put  upon  each  surviving  plant,  the  same  as  with 
the  European  holly. 

In  time,  it  became  so  difficult  to  get  holly  cuttings  that  the 
expense  prohibited  most  people  from  using  hollies  at  Yule- 
tide.     Nevertheless,  the  most  binding  demands  of  tradition 


Al  left,  a  beautiful  American  holly 
tree.  Ilex  opaca,  just  north  oj 
Baltimore,  Maryland.  Our  cover 
illustration,  also  Ilex  opaca,  is 
Jrom  a  Field  Museum  Herbarium 
specimen,  collected  in  York  County, 
Pennsylvania  in  1S92.  This  Her- 
barium sheet  is  one  of  the  more 
than  2  Vo  million  in  our  botanical 
collections,  which  are  the  fifth 
largest  in  the  world. 

At  right  are  leaf  forms  of  various 
English,  American  and  Oriental 

Facing  page  shows  Ilex  opaca 
"Cumberland,^'  left,  and  Ilex 
"*      opaca  ^'Knight,''  two  commercial 

continued,  and  the  cry  for  pieces  of  the  plant  did  not  abate. 

.\t  about  this  time,  circa  1840,  small  groups  of  men,  boys, 
and  occasionally  women  and  girls,  often  in  family  units,  un- 
dertook to  supply  the  demand.  Thus  were  born  the  "holly- 
breakers."'  It  may  have  been  a  labor  of  love  or  for  profit  or 
both,  but  in  any  case  little  is  written  of  these  people  in  the 
literature  of  .'American  folklore. 

Let  us  picture  very  briefly  the  times  in  which  they  worked 
— transportation  by  foot  or  pack  animal,  refrigeration  none, 
commimication  tediously  slow.  Christmas  falls  at  the  time 
of  year  that  (in  our  latitudes)  is  the  least  favorable  for  plant 
growth  and  since  refrigeration  was  non-existant,  the  "break- 
ers'' were  forced  to  collect  their  materials  when  conditions 
for  gathering  cuttings  were  at  their  worst.    Once  collected,  it 

/.  chinensis 

I.  aquifolium 

Page  8     DECEMBER 

was  imperative  to  get  the  yield  to  market  as  quickly  as  pos- 
sible at  the  time  that  transportation  was  slowest;  a  dried  sprig 
has  little  or  no  value  for  ornamental  purposes. 

The  sparse  records  of  holly  breakers  contain  stories  of  death 
by  freezing,  and  extreme  suffering  from  exposure.  This  one, 
probably  true  and  certainly  typical,  illustrates  the  hardships 
endured  by  the  holly  breakers. 

In  the  1850's  near  the  city  of  Pocahontas  in  West  \"ir- 
ginia,  a  father  and  son  on  or  about  December  10,  proceeded 
to  climb  a  mountainside  (probably  the  famed  South  Moun- 
tain) for  the  purpose  of  breaking  holly  to  carry  to  market. 
The  weather  was  cold  and  clear  when  they  began,  but  while 
cutting  the  plants  they  were  overtaken  by  a  snowstorm  and 
separated.  Only  the  son  returned  the  next  day  with  a  load 
of  holly  on  his  back.  He  had  been  severely  frost-bitten 
and  otherwise  badly  used  by  the  elements.  At  the  clearing 
of  the  storm,  a  search  for  the  father  was  undertaken.  He  was 
found  dead  on  the  mountain  slope  with  his  "crop"  nearby. 
When  the  search  party  returned  to  the  home  with  their  bur- 
den, the  son,  too,  was  found  dead  as  a  result  of  the  exposure 
he  had  endured. 

The  hoUybreakers  were  not  the  only  sufferers.  Since  it 
was  necessary  to  cut  as  much  as  possible  from  each  plant  in 
order  to  make  the  task  economically  feasible,  many  stands  of 
plants  were  destroyed.  The  damage  to  both  man  and  plant 
is  the  basic  fact  in  what  little  is  known  of  the  practice.  By 
1885,  hoUybreaking  had  come  to  an  end. 

Increased  knowledge  acquired  after  the  turn  of  the  cen- 
tury brought  the  realization  that  holly  could  be  cultivated 
over  much  of  its  range.  Contemporaneously,  early  breeding 
experiments,  especially  in  England  at  Kew  Gardens,  resulted 
in  a  number  of  new  and  attractive  forms  of  the  European 
species.  By  1960,  over  300  desirable  varieties  were  listed  in 
England's  catalogues. 

With  this  work  as  a  spur,  breeders  in  the  United  States 
began  to  employ  our  species.  To  date  almost  200  horticul- 
tural varieties  have  been  developed.  Most  recent  work  has 
centered  on  the  possibility  of  crossing  the  English  or  Euro- 
pean type  with  the  American,  in  order  to  breed  the  "shiny 
leaf"  into  the  usually  dull-leaved  Ilex  opaca. 

These  two  species  are  essentially  incompatible.     Few  if 

any  fertile  oflfspring  result  from  direct  crosses.  In  the  course 
of  experimentation  it  wss  discovered  that  offspring  of  crosses 
between  .American  holly  and  certain  Asiatic  species  could  be 
readily  crossed  with  the  English  hollies,  and  so  obtain  man\ 
healthy  hybrids.  These  crosses  give  promise  of  eventually 
producing  the  desired  forms. 

As  a  few  Asiatic  species  of  hollies  were  used  in  breeding 
and  hybridization  researches,  others  were  introduced  for  their 
particular  horiticultural  merit.  For  centuries,  numerous  spe- 
cies were  cultivated  throughout  the  Far  East,  especially  in 
Japan  and  China,  for  their  beauty  of  growth  form  and  foli- 
age, as  well  as  for  berry  production.  In  the  past  fifty  years, 
over  sixty  species  have  been  imported  from  this  area.  A  num- 
ber of  these  such  as  Ilex  cornuta  (Japanese  holly),  its  form 
bujord,  Ilex  pernyii.  I.  chinensis,  I.  pernyii-veitchii  (a  hybrid  of 
two  Asiatic  species),  /.  crenala  and  /.  rotundijolia  have  gained 
wide  acceptance  especially  in  our  southeast.  These  species 
can  be  found  in  both  informal  and  formal  gardens.  They 
are  extremely  resistant  to  disease,  which  makes  them  doubly 
valuable.  Lately  these  and  other  hollies  have  gained  accep- 
tance as  Christmas  plants. 

A  still  untapped  source  of  possible  gene  material  to  pro- 
duce new  and  useful  types  of  holly  is  found  in  the  200  tropical 
American  species.  Although  truly  attractive  plants  are  rela- 
tively few  in  number,  those  few  have  great  beauty  and  are 
certainly  worth  serious  investigation,  especially  Ilex  obcordata 
(found  on  the  Island  of  Jamaica),  /.  boliviana  of  the  Andes 

mountains,  and  /.  microphylla  of  eastern  Brazil.  These  spe- 
cies, exotic  at  present,  may  well  be  developed  into  a  major 
source  for  future  Christmas  decorations  as  well  as  year-round 
adornment  for  our  homes  and  streets. 

Certain  evidence  exists  that  at  least  some  hollies  can  be 
grown  over  much  of  the  United  States  if  given  careful  atten- 
tion. Breeding  for  hardiness  in  our  local  climate,  as  well  as 
in  others,  proceeds  concurrently  with  breeding  for  leaf-color 
and  other  useful  characteristics.  Given  suitable  time,  a  holly 
will  no  doubt  be  developed  which  incorporates  all  or  many 
of  these  desirable  traits.  When  that  day  arrives,  it  will  be 
commonplace  to  see  Christmas  holly  in  our  yards  and  lawns 
the  year  around.  Until  then,  we  will  be  obliged  to  purchase 
our  holly  wreaths  and  sprigs  as  we  do  our  Christmas  trees. 

DECEMBER     Page  9 


NEARLY  A  DECADE  AGO,  I  wrote  in  the  Bulletin  that 
the  life-blood  of  science  is  the  stream  of  pub- 
lished research  papers,  large  and  small,  which 
comprise  the  "current  literature"  conveying  the 
information  we  read  from  specimens  to  those  who  get  their 
information  by  reading  the  printed  word  .  .  .  our  public. 

I  then  examined  the  extent  to  which  a  Harvard  professor 
used  material  from  Field  Museum  zoologists  in  writing  a  book 
on  animal  distribution.  I  found  he  cited  thirty  papers  by  our 
curators  in  his  bibliography  and  gave  them  seventy-five  page- 
references  in  his  index.    This  was  a  gratifying  record. 

With  the  publication  of  Field  Museum's  Annual  Report 
for  1965,  it  is  opportune  to  look  at  the  scope  of  our  activity  as 
reflected  in  the  publications  of  our  zoology  staff  listed  there. 
Ten  curators  are  listed,  with  forty  published  papers  varying 
in  size  from  one  to  351  pages.  Twenty-two  different  pub- 
lishers were  used  to  present  these  forty  papers  to  the  public. 
Field  Museum  put  out  seven  of  them.  Others  were  published 
by  two  other  museums,  the  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture, 
World  Health  Organization,  Illinois  Society  of  Medical  Re- 
search, three  commercial  publishers,  general  scientific  jour- 
nals such  as  Science,  Nature,  Quarterly  Review  oj  Biology,  Natural 
History,  and  more  specialized  journals  such  as  Ibis,  Veliger, 
Puku,  and  the  Journal  oj  Mammalogy.  Sixteen  of  these  publi- 
cations are  American,  five  are  European  and  one  is  African. 
The  groups  of  animals  treated  include  mammals,  birds, 
reptiles,  fishes,  insects  and  mollusks.    The  parts  of  the  globe 

they  represent  include  all  continents  and  many  islands,  as  a 
selection  of  key  words  from  titles  indicates :  Africa,  Australia, 
Bahainas,  Bechuanaland,  Barotseland,  Cameroun,  Colom- 
bia, Egypt,  India,  Indochina,  New  Jersey,  North  America, 
and  Thailand. 

It  is  as  interesting  to  look  at  the  audiences  for  whom  these 
papers  are  written,  as  at  their  content.  Most  are  written  for 
our  colleagues  interested  in  the  same  geographical  areas  and 
the  same  groups  of  animals.  Again,  key  words  of  a  different 
sort  selected  from  some  of  the  titles  indicate  their  content  and 
approach :  Systematics  and  evolution  (snakes) ;  Relationships 
and  zoogeography  (snakes);  A  study  of  squirrels;  Taxonomy 
and  nomenclature  (birds);  Interesting  birds  from  Barotse- 
land; A  whale  new  to  the  western  hemisphere;  A  new  species 
of  squirrel  fish;  A  winter  plumage  (bird)  and  a  mutant  (bird). 
Quite  properly,  specialized  scientific  papers  represent  the 
greater  part  of  our  work. 

But  some  of  our  research  goes  beyond  the  supply  of  more 
information  and  different  approaches  for  other  specialists  in 
the  same  fields.  Two  papers  point  out  that  modern  concepts 
in  systematics  can  be  adopted  to  advantage  by  those  using 
experimental  caged  monkeys  in  medical  and  psychological 
studies.  Another  paper  deals  with  bird  migrations;  the  ticks 
born  by  the  birds  and  their  role  in  the  occurrence  of  arthro- 
pod-born viruses  and  related  diseases  in  North  Africa. 

The  book  reviews  our  staff  members  were  requested  to 
write  drew  on  our  specialized  knowledge  to  comment  on 

Page  10     DECEMBER 


problems  such  as  speciation  and  parasitism,  as  well  as  on 
faiinal  papers  and  check-lists.  Some  reviews  received  much 
wider  circulation  than  the  original  papers  themselves,  espe- 
cially in  such  general  journals  as  the  Qjiarlerly  Review  of  Biol- 
ogy and  in  Natural  History  Magazine. 

Beyond  research  and  its  publication,  there  is  yet  a  further 
aim  to  our  writing.  This  is  to  convey  knowledge  and  an 
appreciation  of  the  living  world  to  the  non-scientist.  The 
teachers  in  universities  who  read  our  research  papers  may  do 
some  of  this  in  their  teaching  but  we  do  some  of  it  directly. 
"A  New  Dictionary  of  Birds"  is  a  monumental  volume,  en- 
cyclopedic in  character  and  vivid  in  treatment,  that  helps 
eliminate  some  of  the  gaps  between  the  specialist  and  the 
amateur  naturalist.  Members  of  our  curatorial  staff  contrib- 
uted a  number  of  sections  to  this  cooperative  work. 

At  still  another  level,  our  staff  contributed  sections  to  the 
two  volumes  on  North  American  birds  put  out  by  the  National 
Geographic  Society,  written  and  illustrated  to  appeal  to  that 
wide  audience  of  nature  lovers  lacking  special  knowledge. 

Children's  books  by  staff  members  are  available  both  in 
English  and  in  translations.  From  this  form,  requiring  quite 
specialized  skills,  to  the  most  abstruse  scientific  paper,  from 
Bulletin  article  to  book,  there  is  a  continuous  effort  by  the 
staff  of  all  four  departments  of  the  Museum  to  present  the 
natural  sciences  to  various  audiences:  fellow  scientists.  Mem- 
bers of  the  Museum,  and  the  interested  layman. 

— Austin  L.  Rand,  Chief  Curator,  ^oology 

recent  acquisition — geology 


Thirty-seven  selected  mineral  specimens,  collected  by  Mi-. 
Glen  Commons  of  Aurora,  Illinois,  are  on  display  this  month 
in  Stanley  Field  Hall.  Recently  donated  by  him  to  the  col- 
lections of  Field  Museum,  they  are  outstanding  examples  of 
their  kind  in  size,  degree  of  perfection,  and  in  some  cases, 

The  largest  piece,  illustrated  below,  12  inches  long,  10 
inches  wide  and  8  inches  high,  is  a  marcasite  from  Galena, 
Illinois.  Shown  with  it  in  the  center  case  are  specimens  of 
indicolite,  brazilianite,  rose  quartz,  rubellite  with  albite,  and 
a  very  large  piece  of  quartz  intergrown  with  tourmaline,  all 
from  Minas  Gerais,  Brazil,  as  well  as  two  specimens  of  dan- 
burite  with  quartz  from  Mexico. 

The  west  case  contains  five  specimens  from  Brazil  and 
Illinois,  among  them  a  marcasite  from  Galena  of  an  interest- 
ing domed  form.  Others  displayed  in  this  case  are  apatite 
and  tourmaline  from  Minas  Gerais,  Brazil. 

The  east  case  shows  five  large  fluorites  from  Hardin 
County,  Illinois.  Their  strong  rectilinear  crystal  structure  is 
clearly  visible  on  the  surface  of  the  rocks,  as  seen  in  the  bottom 
illustration.    The  colors  range  from  white-grey  in  the  speci- 

men containing  shaleritc  and  calcitc,  to  very  dark   purple, 
almost  black,  in  the  others. 

These  minerals  have  been  accessioned  and  cataloged  into 
the  study  collections  of  the  Department  of  Geology,  where 
they  join  many  thousands  of  other  specimens  from  all  parts 
of  the  world,  gathered  by  the  field  collecting  of  staff  mem- 
bers, purchases,  exchanges  and,  often,  as  gifts  from  interested 
friends  of  the  Museum. 

DECEMBER     Page  11 


The  fifth  annual  Holiday  Science  Lectures,  presented  by  The  American  Association 
for  the  Advancement  of  Science  and  Field  Museum  of  Natural  History  will  be  held 
at  the  Museum  on  December  28  and  29.  The  program  provides  selected  high  school 
students  and  teachers  with  the  opportunity  to  hear  eminent  scientists  talk  about  their 
work.  The  general  purpose  of  the  lectures  is  to  broaden  the  scientific  horizons  of  the 
audience  and  to  communicate  to  them  some  of  the  excitement  and  inspiration  of 
scientific  endeavor.  The  program  is  made  possible  by  a  grant  from  National  Science 

Dr.  Paul  A.  Weiss,  of  the  Rockefeller  University,  will  be  this  year's  speaker.  Dr. 
Weiss  has  received  international  recognition  for  his  experimental  and  theoretical 
studies  in  the  biological  sciences.  He  will  talk  to  the  students  and  teachers  on 
"Living  Form — The  Nature  and  Origin  of  Pattern."  He  will  tell  how  the  ordering 
of  elements  in  space  and  time  gives  a  living  organism  its  form,  and  what  progress  is 
being  made  in  increasing  man's  understanding  of  life. 

7965  Holiday  Lecture  Dr.  Paul  A.  Weiss 

In  past  years,  the  Holiday  Science  Lectures  have  been  received  with  enthusiasm 
by  both  students  and  teachers.  Field  Museum  co-sponsors  them  as  part  of  its  rap- 
idly expanding  educational  program. 


Phillip  H.  Lewis,  formerly  Curator  of  Primitive  Art,  has  been  appointed  Curator  of 
Primitive  Art  and  Melanesian  Ethnology.  He  was  awarded  a  Ph.D.  degree  in  an- 
thropology by  the  University  of  Chicago  in  September.  His  dissertation,  entitled 
"The  Social  Context  of  Art  in  Northern  New  Ireland,"  was  based  on  field  work 
carried  out  in  New  Ireland.  Dr.  Lewis  will  continue  his  special  research  interest 
in  the  art  and  ethnology  of  Melanesia.  He  has  just  returned  from  a  month's  trip  in 
Europe  to  study  the  New  Ireland  collections  in  the  museums  in  Hamburg,  Bremen, 
Frankfurt,  Stuttgart,  and  Basel  in  preparation  for  a  future  field  trip  to  New  Ireland. 


Membership  in  Field  Museum  of  Natural  History  has  doubled  in  the  last  ten  years 
and  is  approaching  12,000.  The  most  dramatic  increase  occurred  in  the  past  year, 
which  saw  a  15%  rise  in  the  Membership.  The  increase  was  due,  in  part,  to  the 
public's  growing  interest  in  the  natural  sciences,  and  to  their  awareness  of  the  im- 
portance of  The  Museum  to  the  cultural  and  educational  life  of  Chicago. 

Also  important  was  the  intensified  efTort  by  Field  Museum  to  broaden  its  base 
of  popular  support.  There  are  Members  in  most  states  and  many  foreign  countries. 

MEETINGS:     Illinois  Audubon  Society,  January  4  at  7  p.m. 

Chicago  Shell  Club,  January  8  at  2  p.m. 

Chicago  Nature  Camera  Club,  January  10  at  7:45  p.m. 
The  Museum  will  be  closed  on  Christmas  Day  and  New  Yearns  Day.    Hours Jor  December 
and  January  are  from  9  a.m.  until  4  p.m.  on  weekdays;  until  5  p.m.  on  weekends  and 
during  the  week  of  December  26th. 

Page  12     DECEMBER 



Roosevelt  Rd.  &  Lake  Shore  Drive 
Chicago,  Illinois  6060S 

Founded  by  Marshall  Field,  1893 

Lester  Armour 
Harry  0.  Bercher 
William  McCormick  Blair 
Bowen  Blair 

William  R.  Dickinson,  Jr. 
Joseph  N.  Field 
Marshall  Field 
Paul  W.  Goodrich 
Clifford  C.  Gregg 
Samuel  Insull,  Jr. 
Henry  P.  Isham 
Hughston  M.  McBain 
Remick  McDowell 
J.  Roscoe  Miller 
William  H.  Mitchell 
James  L.  Palmer 
John  T.  Pirie,  Jr. 
John  Shedd  Reed 
John  G.  Searle 
John  M.  Simpson 
Gerald  A.  Sivage 
Edward  Byron  Smith 
William  Swarlchild,  Jr. 
Louis  Ware 
E.  Leland  Webber 
J.  Howard  Wood 


Walter  J.  Cummings 
William  V.  Kahler 


James  L.  Palmer,  President 
Clifford  C.  Gregg,  First  Vice-President 
Joseph  N.  Field,  Second  Vice-President 
Bowen  Blair,  Third  Vice-President 
Edward  Byron  Smith, 

Treasurer  and  Assistant  Secretary 
E.  Leland  Webber,  Secretary 


E.  Leland  Webber 


Donald  Collier, 

Department  of  Anthropology 
Louis  0.  Williams, 

Department  of  Botany 
Rainer  ^angerl. 

Department  of  Geology 
Austin  L.  Rand, 

Department  of  Zoology 


Edward  G.  Nash,  Managing  Editor 
Beatrice  Paul,  Associate  Editor